Business Ethics Across Cultures
The first article chosen was An Exploration of Ethical Decision-making Processes in the United States and Egypt (2008) written by Beekun, R.I., Hamdy, R., Westerman, J.W., HassabElnaby, H.R. This article was survey of 191 Egyptian and 92 United States executives and explored the relationship between national culture and ethical decision-making. Reidenbach and Robin’s (1988) multi-criteria ethics instruments were used to examine how two of Hofstede’s national culture deminsions, individualism, and collectivism. Also, the manner in which business professionals make ethical decisions (Beekun, Hamdy, Westerman, & HassanElnaby, 2008). Extreme differences in economics and related business development in the United States and Egypt is shown here. The authors write that the United States are individualistic, low in power distance and more unethical than Egypt. Egypt is more collective and high power distance. This makes an interesting comparison. Both Egypt and the United States rely on justice, utilitarianism and relativism in prediting their intentions to behave ethically. They state that Americans substitute egoism for justice when the behavorial intentions of peers are examined. Transparency International’s 2005 Coruption Perceptions Indexes, with 10 highly clean and 0 highly corrupt, shows the United States at 7.6 and Egypt at 3.4 (Beekun, Hamdy, Westerman, & HassanElnaby, 2008). Primary ethical issues of Egypt consist of embezzlement, tax and customs evasion, illegal currency transactions, smuggling and trading contraband, diversion of subsidized goods, leakages from free trade zones, kickbacks and bribes to officials. These white collar ethical issues have run ramant in Egypt since the time of Sarat (Beekun, Hamdy, Westerman, & HassanElnaby, 2008). Beekum, Hamdy, Westerman, and HassanElnaby (2008, p 589) contributed to the understanding global ethical perspectives by revealing that Egypt is more collectivism and that...
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