Business Ethics

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Introduction
Along with the increasingly complicated and multicultural environment, it is universally acknowledged that project management guides and dominates the achievement of a project and the operation of an organisation. Projects, as the familiar concepts, have aroused infinite attention as the consequence of the increasing market pressure, improvement of technology and the needs for innovation. Concurrently, the existence of a series of variables, which relate to the project constraints, is what the project management should deal with and can be also regarded as the objective of project management. In this case, the objective of project management and the major variables will be described and analysed in this article.

Objectives of project management
In terms of the results of projects, achieving those outcomes ought to be the destination of the objectives. The target of the establishment of a project is to achieve what the project expects to succeed, which refers to a process from a concept of an expectation to a realistic outcome. The achievement of project relates to the project outcomes which depend on the explicit identification and definition of both tangible and intangible outcomes; meanwhile, tangible outcomes ought to be transferred from intangible to tangible (Nogeste & Derek 2005, p.56). Taking the roles of project managers into consideration, they should identify the responsibility and the ability to manage the operation of the project in order to realising the achievement. Vaagaasar (2011, p.294) stated that the process of management, that how knowledge and technique development occurs in projects and how they can be applied among on projects, had been proved to occupied significant position.

From a specific aspect of the objectives, project management intend to manage the decisions including task, resource, time and cost. Initially, task decision, which is vital function of management, refers to whether the project group can be conducted in a proper direction. It is related to the function of decision making which is often to pursue the developing opportunities by adjusting the tasks to fit the changes (Greenley, Hooley & Saunders 2004, p.933). Secondly, time, cost and resource management extremely impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of projects. According to the analysis of Leopold and Karsten (2003, p.403), companies require more extensive awareness of temporalities that standardised approaches could no longer be relied on. Meanwhile, in an effective and efficient way, project managers can ‘quantify value commensurate with cost and to optimise the use of resources’ through appropriate measures of achievement (Carton et al 2008, p.106). Thirdly, managing changes, which include the time, cost, resource and specification management, should also be identified as an objective of project management. Williams (1989, p.17) stated that the changes can be reorganisation or rationalisation, and be caused by the growth and restructuring, in order to respond to external environment.

Major variables project management deals with
Taking the changing situations into consideration, a series of variables might exist during project management. Generally, the four major variables, which include time, cost, resource and specification (quality), will be concretely analysed. Time is a changeable factor for project management which has significant influence on the operation and outcome. Effective time management is obviously related to the positive project performance and profitability (Burt et al 2010, p.649). It is not what a manager does, but the result of what he achieves, which depend on how the time be spent by the manager (Jones 1982, p.189). Therefore, project managers should be sensitive to adapt the changing situation, in order to dealing with the constraints and remedying the deficiencies. Nevertheless, deficiencies still cannot be ignored that no integrative theory exist combining the...
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