Business Environment of Pre-British India

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BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OF PRE-BRITISH INDIA

PROJECT BY: BHAVANA BHATIA-7 REUBEN DANTES-9 CRYSTAL D’SOUZA-11 ALISHA PEREIRA-38 TANUSHREE SHARMA-47 GAURAV TALERA-52

Executive Summary
It is the past which shapes what we become in the present. Most of what we do and follow today has been decided in the past which is why we have to understand who we were to become who we have to be. India is one of the few civilizations which has been in existence for more than 5000 years. India is a homogenous culture and it has such strong roots that we have been able to absorb any outside intervention with ease. Be it the Muslim Kings or the Mughals, we have integrated everyone into our culture. “Everybody looks different and dresses differently. Complexions range from white to black coffee; noses from Biblical spurs to Mongolian pugs; some people are very tall, others very short. Dress, like a botanical classification, reveals the exact identity of the bearer his or her religion, caste, region and occupation. The variety is endless.” India’s composite culture led to the spirit of tolerance; and acceptance of each other despite differences. Fertile plains of India, made the struggle of survival easier – people developed habits of ease and pleasure, could not stand the physically stronger foreigners. Even the Muslims, lost their original virility and they were conquered by others. In order to capture the variety of these cultures and to understand the depth of their impact on our lives we have tried to bring out the specificities of each Age through our project. The different policies, the rituals, the system of administration, the technological inventions all have contributed towards our unique culture. Our project aims at understanding all these impacts in a consolidated way and help us understand our past. Our project covers the eras from the stone age man till the Mughal era and all the impacts, the technological advancements, the social system, the economic policies and the unique system of administration which has helped shaped our country today.

Table of Contents
Pre-Historic India .......................................................................................................................................... 4 Palaeolithic Man / Old Stone Age ............................................................................................................. 4 Mesolithic Man / Middle Stone Age ......................................................................................................... 4 Neolithic Man / New Stone Age................................................................................................................ 5 Bronze Age – Indus Valley Civilization ......................................................................................................... 6 Vedic India .................................................................................................................................................. 11 The Mauryan Empire .................................................................................................................................. 17 The Middle Kingdoms – The Gupta and the Harsha Empire ..................................................................... 25 The Delhi Sultanate .................................................................................................................................... 37 The Mughal Empire .................................................................................................................................... 42 The Vijayanagar Empire ............................................................................................................................. 48 Bibliography................................................................................................................................................ 52

Pre-Historic India
Palaeolithic Man / Old Stone Age In the old-stone age, human beings were...
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