Chapter 1 BC
Communication: process of exchanging information and meaning between or among individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, and behavior.
Purpose of comm.: (satisfy needs) inform, persuade, and entertain.
Managers spend 60-80% of their time communicating
Career activities that involve communication: meetings, reports, interviews, team work, etc.
Effective BC doesn’t happen automatically! An effective communicator anticipates misunderstandings.
Sender encodes message
Encoding: selecting and organizing the message (words and non-verbal signs) Purpose: that the receiver gets a message as close as possible to the one sent (Knowledge of the receiver aids the sender to encode)
Breakdowns: ambiguous msg, non-verbal signs, distractions, words not in receiver’s vocabulary
Sender selects appropriate channel and transmits message
* Two-way, face-to-face: conversation, interviews, videoconferences… (instant feedback, non-verbal signs)
* Two-way, not face-to-face: telephone, chat
(instant feedback, limited non-verbal signs)
* One-way, not-face-to-face: letters, emails, reports…
(no instant feedback, minimal non-verbal signs)
Receiver decodes message
Decoding: Interpreting a message
Breakdowns: Sender made mistake when encoding msg, intimidated receiver, receiver thinks topic is too hard, receiver is close-minded
Receiver encodes message to clarify misunderstandings (feedback) Can be verbal or non-verbal: “I don’t get it”, confused face/”I understand”, nod
Much interference can happen in different parts of the comm. process… Ex. Internal interferences: mental distractions like preoccupation of an unrelated matter, difference in educational level and culture… Ex. External interferences: noisy environment, interruptions, uncomfortable surrounding…
Organizational Communication: Movement of information within company structure
Levels of communication
1. Intrapersonal Comm.: Comm. with oneself (self-talk). Can be positive & constructive or negative & destructive 2. Interpersonal Comm.: Two people
Goals: TASK GOALS (accomplish a task), MAINTENANCE GOALS (feel better about themselves) 3. Group Comm.: More than two ppl
(Groups can do more for individuals than individuals can do for themselves) 4. Organizational Comm.: Combination of groups so that large tasks may be accomplished 5. Public Comm.: Organization reaches out to public (ex: media, advertising, website)
Organization Communication Flow
Formal comm. channel: Technical, political, economic environments… People are required to act professionally and achieve tasks. (Bureaucracy) Informal comm. channel
Ex: Grapevine: Casual talk in coffee breaks & lunch period, rumors. It is fast but inaccurate. To avoid inaccurate information in the Grapevine, companies must be open with employees (this way there is more formal information, to avoid informal and inaccurate information from emerging). Managers MUST acknowledge that there will always be an informal channel and use it instead of condemning it.
Direction of Communication Flow
Downward: From top to bottom in organizational chart. The msg usually gets bigger as it goes down (ex: from policy statement to formal plan for operation). Written is more reliable. Ex: policies, work assignments, constructive criticism, deserved recognition… Upward: Generally it’s feedback to downward comm. Keeps management informed about employees. Can be spoken or written. It can involve a risk to the employee, it may be misleading if employee tells manager what he wants to hear. Ex: ideas, suggestions, feelings, problems, clarifications, accomplishments… Horizontal: Comm. between workers on the same hierarchy level. It is very important for coordinating and achieving tasks. Its shortcoming is that traditional hierarchy charts don’t allow so much of this comm. TQM would argue that cross-functional work teams have better comm. and...