1. Barriers to communication
*Failure to analyses the needs of the receiver
*Poor listening, and lack of attention to feedback
*Different cultural background
*Too many people to pass on the message from the sender to the receiver *Poor feedback, with filtering, omission and errors as messages are passed on *Written message that have been badly set out
*Different perception of situation and meaning of message
*Poor planning of information
*The sender information may be insufficient or not clear enough *Message in which information is so thin that readers becomes bored *Language is too technical or the receiver, or technical language that is not in the receiver’s field *Wrong emphasis in the information, so that the receiver does not know what the most important parts of the message are
2. Nine types of Non-Verbal Communication and their significance in communication 1, Silence
3, Kinetics or body movement
4, Facial expression and eye contact
6, Distance and Territoriality
7, Clothing and accessories such as jewellery
8, Object and environment within which people work
9, People’s view of time
Silence during interpersonal communication is important. When silence is well used it helps people to engage in genvine two-way communication. Silence encourages effective turn-taking, and can show that the other person is listening. Silence in the form of pauses is also important in public speaking. It allows the audience time to absorb what people are saying, particularly if the information is strange. People can, however, misinterpret others silence. They decide why others are silent, without asking them.
This word describes they ways in which we speak, rather than we say. It covers the following aspect of our lives:
How fast or slow we talk
How resultant our voice are
How harsh our voices are
How level of tension in our voices
It also covers the clearing of throats, coughs, and even laughing and crying As we listen to paralanguage we make our mind about people:
Feelings about themselves and their subject
Attitude towards us
Level of sophistication
These judgement could be quiet wrong.
We should, therefore, take great care to cultivate lively voices that helps listeners to judge accurately how we feel about ourselves and our subject. We should also strive to understand other’s people’s paralanguage.
This term describes our body movement as we interact with others. In particularly, the study of kinetics covers:
They way we walk
How we stand in relation to others
Our arm and hand movements
They way in which we sit
Facial Expression and eye-contact
We constantly judge other people by their facial expression. We look their hair, ages, forehead, mouths, chins and state of their skin. However, people have learnt to adjust their facial expression to one that they judge to be socially acceptable. We therefore need to observe people’s faces very carefully, particularly their eyes, if we are to gain a true idea of their feeling. Eye-contact signals that the communication channels are open are open from a western point of view we tend to suspect people who not to look at us. We have greater confidence in people who look at us while we are speaking.
Cultures vary a great in their attitude to touching. People involved in intercultural communication need to be aware of this. Some western cultures are, for example classified as Non-touch or Non-contact culture. People from others cultures, however, may value touching during conservation particularly to gain attention or to interpret. Proxemics, or distance and territoriality
We all carry with us a space bubble or comfort zone. If people invade this zone we feel very uncomfortable. These space bubbles vary a great deal from culture to culture. The study of proxemics covers people use space and how they react...
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