BUSINESS AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
NATURE OF BUSINESS
Business may be understood as the organized efforts of enterprise to supply consumers with goods and services for a profit. Businesses vary in size, as measured by the number of employees or by sales volume. But, all businesses share the same purpose: to earn profits.
The purpose of business goes beyond earning profit. There are: • It is an important institution in society.
• Be it for the supply of goods and services
• Creation of job opportunities
• Offer of better quality of life
• Contributing to the economic growth of the country.
Hence, it is understood that the role of business is crucial. Society cannot do without business. It needs no emphasis that business needs society as much. BUSINESS TODAY
Modern business is dynamic. If there is any single word that can best describe today’s business, it is change. This change makes the companies spend substantially on Research and development (R & D) to survive in the market. Mass production and mass marketing are the norms followed by business enterprises. The number of companies with an annual turnover of Rs.100 crore each was only three in 1969-70.The figure has gone up by hundreds these days. Today’s business is characterized by diversification, which may be: 2
Concentric Diversification - It refers to the process of adding new, but relates products or services.
Horizontal Diversification - Adding new, unrelated products or services for present customers is called horizontal Diversification.
Conglomerate Diversification - It refers to adding new and unrelated products or services.
Going international is yet another trend followed by modern business houses. Business houses are exposed to global competition, which argues well for consumers. Also occupying a major role is science in the global economic scenario.
BUSINESS IN 21ST CENTURY
Large organizations, with a large workforce will not exist. They will be ‘Mini’ organizations. Business during the 21st century will be knowledge-based, tomorrow’s manager need not spend his time on file pushing and paper-shufling. Information technology will take care of most of that work. Organizations will become flat. Linear relationship between the boss and manger and authority flowing downwards and obedience upward will disappear. Employees will have no definite jobs. Most of the jobs will last for two to five years. Remuneration will depend on one’s contribution to organization.
Profit - Making profit is the primary goal of any business enterprise. Growth - Business should grow in all directions over a period of time. Power - Business houses have vast resources at its command. These resources confer enormous economic and political power.
Employee satisfaction and development - Business is people. Caring for employee satisfaction and providing for their development has been one of the objectives of enlightened business enterprises.
Quality Products and Services - Persistent quality of products earns brand loyalty, a vital ingredient of success.
Market Leadership - To earn a niche for oneself in the market, innovation is the key factor.
Challenging - Business offers vast scope and poses formidable challenges.
Joy of creation - It is through business strategies new ideas and innovations are given a shape and are converted into useful products and services.
Service to society - Business is a part of society and has several obligations towards it.
Environment refers to all external forces, which have a bearing on the functioning of business. Environment factors “are largely if not totally, external and beyond the control of individual industrial enterprises and their managements. The business environment poses threats to a firm or offers immense opportunities for potential market exploitation.
TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT
Environment includes such factors as socio-economic, technological, supplier, competitor and the...