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  • Topic: Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Planet, Sun
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1.|So far as we know, the first person who claimed that natural phenomena could be described by mathematics was| |A) Copernicus. B) Pythagoras. C) Aristotle. D) Ptolemy.| |Ans: BSection: Chapter 2, Introduction|

2.|The ancient Greek thinker Pythagoras held the view that|
A)|triangles do not exist.|
B)|natural phenomena are wonderful to watch but cannot be described by mathematics.| C)|the Sun is at the center of the planetary system.|
D)|natural phenomena can be described mathematically.|
|Ans: DSection: Chapter 2, Introduction|

3.|The intellectual foundation of science is|
A)|observation, faith, and acceptance.|
B)|rejection of all observations that disagree with theory.| C)|logical derivation entirely from fundamental principles.| D)|observation, logic, and skepticism.|
|Ans: DSection: 2-1|

4.|A scientist observes a new phenomenon that disagrees with his explanation or hypothesis. Following the scientific method, he should| A)|discard the observation as erroneous.|
B)|modify his hypothesis.|
C)|wait until someone develops an adequate explanation before announcing his observation.| D)|reject those observations that do not agree with the theory.| |Ans: BSection: 2-1|

5.|In science, if new and reliable observations disagree with a well-established theory, then| A)|this shows the futility of attempting to understand the universe. The observations should be classified for future reference and the theory retained as the best explanation of the phenomenon.| B)|the observations must be discarded.|

C)|the theory must be discarded immediately.|
D)|the theory must be modified to account for the observations, and if this is not possible, then the theory must be discarded.| |Ans: DSection: 2-1|

6.|In science, if new and reliable observations disagree with a particular theory, then| A)|the observations must be discarded.|
B)|the theory must be modified.|
C)|this should be accepted as part of the overall incomprehensibility of the universe, and both the observations and the theory should be retained.| D)|the theory must be discarded immediately.|
|Ans: BSection: 2-1|

7.|The scientific method is a major force in science, and theories describing physical phenomena have been developed with the aim of ensuring that| A)|they agree with what we find in experiments and observations.| B)|results from experiments can be adjusted to agree with carefully constructed theoretical ideals.| C)|they agree with the wisdom of the ancients.|

D)|they are so good and our faith in them is so strong that we never need to test them against observations.| |Ans: ASection: 2-1|

8.|In following the principles of the scientific method, a theory proposed to explain a given phenomenon must| A)|agree with and build upon previous theories but need not explain all observations because some of these may be erroneous.| B)|predict new and different experiments that will extend the scope of the theoretical understanding but need not explain all the previous observations because no theory is expected to explain everything completely.| C)|explain all previous and reliable observations in a consistent manner but need not suggest new tests for the theory because a theory should be complete in itself.| D)|explain all known and reliable observations and predict new experiments and observations.| |Ans: DSection: 2-1|

9.|According to the scientific method, a hypothesis that is proposed to explain a particular physical phenomenon is considered to be wrong if| A)|leading scientists in the world believe that it is wrong.| B)|it disagrees with the accepted theory at the time of the proposal.| C)|it appears to defy logic and logical reasoning.|

D)|it is in conflict with the results of just one reliable and repeatable observation.| |Ans: DSection: 2-1|

10.|In applying the scientific method to the study of our natural surroundings, scientists are| A)|discovering by observation the absolute truth about limited areas...
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