CHAPTER ONE – ORGANIZATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY
- Administrative principles: closed system management perspective that focuses on the total organization and grows from the insight of practitioners - Bureaucratic organizations: organization design based on clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal record keeping and uniform application if standard rules - Change strategy: a plan to guide an organizational change - Chaos Theory: a scientific theory that suggests that relationships in complex, adaptive systems are made up of numerous interconnections that create unintentional effects and render the environment unpredictable - Closed system: autonomous, enclosed and not dependent on the external environment - Contextual dimensions: the characteristics of an organization, including size, technology, environment and goals. - Contingency: the applicable management approach to deal with unforeseen events - Effectiveness: the degree to which an organization achieves its goals - Efficiency: the amount of resources used to produce a unit of output - Hawthorne studies: studies worker productivity. Managers who treat their employees well facilitate increased employee output - Learning organization: everyone is engaged in finding and solving problems enable continuous improvement and capabilities of its own employees - Level of analysis: in systems theory, the subsystem on which the primary focus is placed; four levels of analysis characterize the organization - Meso theory: combines micro and macro levels of analysis
- Open System: interacts with the environment for survival
- Organization: social entities that are goal directed, deliberately structured and linked to the external environment - OB: micro approach to organizations with focus on individuals in the organization - OT: macro approach to organizations that analyses the whole organization as a unit - Role: allows an employee to use their abilities to achieve outcomes and meet goals - Scientific management: claims decisions about organization and job design should be based on precise, scientific procedures - Stakeholder: any group within or outside an organization that has a stake in the organizations performance - Stakeholder approach: (constituency approach) stakeholder satisfaction indicates the performance of the organization - Structural dimensions: describes the internal characteristics of an organization - Subsystems: divisions of an organization that perform specific functions for the survival of the organization. Functions include boundary spanning, production, maintenance, adaptation and management - System: set of interacting elements of inputs, transformation and output to the environment - Task: narrowly defined piece of work assigned to a person PART TWO: ORGANIZATIONAL PURPOSE AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN
CHAPTER TWO – STRATEGY, ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN, AND EFFECTIVENESS - Analyzer (62)
- Competing values model: perspective on organizational effectiveness that combines diverse indictors of performance that represent competing management values - Defender: business strategy that seeks stability or retrenchment rather than innovation or growth - Differentiation strategy: used to distinguish an organization’s products or services from others in the industry - Focus strategy: concentrates on a specific regional market or buyer group Goal approach: concerned with output and whether the organization achieves its output goals - Human relations emphasis: competing-values model that incorporates the values of an internal focus and a flexible structure - Internal-process approach: looks at internal activities and assesses effectiveness by indicators of internal health and efficiency - Internal-process emphasis: competing-values model that looks at the values of internal focus and structural control - Low-cost leadership...