Burnout

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Burnout among care staff for older adults with dementia: The role of reciprocity, self-efficacy and organizational factors

Abstract
People working in the helping professions have been found to be vulnerable to the development of burnout and research has suggested a relationship between dementia care and burnout. Literature suggests that the development of burnout may be linked to a number of factors, including lack of reciprocity, low self-efficacy and organizational factors. The study will explore burnout in staff for older people with dementia and examined the roles of reciprocity,self-efficacy and organizational factors and aimed to identify which of these variables was the greatest predictor of burnout.76 members of staff in continuing care homes for people with dementia will complete self-report questionnaires. Data will be analyed using regression anlaysis and co relation.

Burnout
Burnout is a particular syndrome linked to the emotional strains experienced at work. The most widely accepted conceptualization originates from the work of Maslach and Jackson (1986), who consider burnout as an ongoing emotional state, typically characterized by the three dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Those working in helping professions such as teachers, social workers,and general practitioners have been found to be particularly vulnerable to burnout (Balloch, Pahl, & McLean 1998).

Dementia care staff and burnout
Dementia is a progressive disease, in which the individual’s cognitive impairment deteriorates over time; there is no cure and the individual will develop significant memory problems and progressively require more help with day-to-day life. It therefore comes as no surprise that family caregivers for people with dementia experience a great degree of stress which can result in negative health outcomes (Harper & Lund, 1990; Steffen & Magum, 2005). Family caregivers are faced with persistent demands over an extended period of time, and have been found to experience a high level of burden associated with high expressed emotion, depression, anxiety and difficulties in coping(Bledin, MacCarthy, Kuipers, & Woods, 1990; Hepburn, Tornatore, Centre, & Ostwald, 2001; Tremont, Davis, & Bishop, 2006).

Burnout and reciprocity
There have been few studies exploring variables which contribute towards burnout. . The dual-level social exchange model of burnout has been developed by Schaufeli et al. (1996) to illustrate the relationship between reciprocity at both the interpersonal and organizational levels upon burnout. Helping professionals may frequently feel that they invest more energy in their relationships with clients than is invested by the recipients of their care. This imbalance or lack of reciprocity can place strain upon the helping professional and make them vulnerable to the development of burnout (Schaufeli, 1999). Research has illustrated a positive relationship between the lack of reciprocity helping professionals have with their client group and the three dimensions of burnout. This positive relationship has been illustrated in nurses (Van Yperen, 1995), general practitioners (Bakker, Schaufeli, Sixma, Bosveld, & Van Dierendonck, 2000), police officers (Kop, Euwema, & Schaufeli, 1999), social workers (Truchot, Keirseblick, & Meyer, 2000) and teachers (Van Horn, Schaufeli, & Taris, 2001).

Burnout and self-efficacy
More recently, the literature has suggested links between self-efficacy and burnout. . Bandura (1997) asserts that the biggest factor contributing to our emotions and behaviour is our belief in whether we can cope with a given situation. As it has became more accepted that caring for someone with dementia can be demanding, particularly over a long period of time, researchers have began to examine the role of caregiver self-efficacy. Gottileb and Rooney (2003) have developed an elder care...
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