Spinnaker tower also known as Portsmouth millennium tower is a millennium commission project that was aimed to change the international notable sight of the south coast of Britain. It is the tallest accessible structure in the united kingdom outside London, It is 170 metres above the sea level and hence a tourist attraction. Burj Khalifa tower is a skyscraper in Dubai, and it is the tallest man made structure that has ever been built to include residential spaces and also has been the world’s tallest building since 2010. The architecture is a combination of cultural effects and sophisticated technology. The decision to embark on this project is based on the fact that the government saw the need to diversify from being an oil based economy to a tourist environment.
Spinnaker tower which was originally called Portsmouth Millennium tower was constructed to reflect Portsmouth’s maritime’s history. The location of the tower is in one of the busiest harbours in the UK, so the risk of ship impact was firstly addressed and they provided an independent piled ship impact structure in front of the tower’s raft. Again because of the shape of the proposed tower, it had the risk of being affected by the wind so; series of wind test were carried out to alleviate this.
United Arab Emirates, Dubai was previous known to be an oil economy but the government felt there was a need to diversify so the invested in tourism, and because so many beautiful structures were already being built, the government felt there was a need to construct a tower that would be on record. The concept of Burj Dubai tower’s structure emerged from the geometrics of the desert flower in the region. Before the commencement of the tower construction, extensive concrete quality and testing control program were put in place to ensure all the contractors that were involved agreed fully with it (Abdelrazaq, Kim, & Kim, 2008), wind climate studies was carried out and the data gotten was used for in the wind tunnel, this also helped to determine the relationship between wind load and wind response, cladding test was carried out in order to determine wind speed and the direction considering the fact that the tower would be Y shaped. Pedestrian level wind study was carried out so as to improve pedestrian’s comfort in exterior area (Irwin & Baker, June 2006).
STAKEHOLDERS AND THEIR IMPACT
The stakeholders of involved in a project can have positive or negative impact on the project, this can be seen from the spinnaker tower project, so many stakeholders were involved .The stakeholders that were involved were Millennium commission, Portsmouth city council , Portsmouth spinnaker ltd (PSTL), Mowlem, Tax payers, Berkeley. In 1999, Millennium commission delayed the approval of fund and this brought about a delay of two years, the construction contractors that were employed too had no experience of a tower project and this caused another delay of six months. Portsmouth spinnaker i.e. PSTL ltd , had no experience of managing a large project as spinnaker tower and hence they mismanaged the project and this brought about cost escalation i.e. the council had to pay for damages and legal cost because they failed to enter into a contract with them at the initial stage (Arthur, 2004). City council employed the services of Mowlem contractors to be their construction contractor. Introducing Mowlem into the project brought about delays because of the initial jobs that had been done by previous contractor.
On the other hand, the stakeholders that were involved in burj khalifa tower project were, Adrian Smith who worked with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) as the architect, the chief structural engineer was Bill Baker, the primary contractor was Korean – based Samsung Corporation, Belgium based Besix and arabtec who were the supervision consultant engineer were sub-contractor, Hyder Consulting was the construction project manager...