Bureaucracy is a type of organizational structure that is found in many large-scale public and private organizations. This still exists in the majority of industrial organizations in the world, despite being around since the 18th century. German sociologist, Max Weber created the bureaucratic management theory which describes bureaucracy as technically superior to all other forms of organizations. Bureaucracies have clear and explicit rules outlining exactly how employees should perform tasks. Ideally, bureaucracy is characterized by hierarchical authority relations, defined spheres of competence subject to impersonal rules, recruitment by competence and fixed salaries. The main aims of bureaucracy are to be rational, efficient, and professional. Bureaucracy has an implied clear-cut division of labour and a high level of specialization, as well as a clearly defined hierarchy. Despite being a very old type of organizational structure, bureaucracies continue to be a highly influential template for designing and managing organizations; yet, this system is no longer considered the most effective way to run an organization.
Bureaucracy as a system of management has many advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include each employee of the organization knowing precisely what their duties are within the organization, and therefore performing their many tasks quicker and more efficiently. The clear-cut rules set by bureaucratic systems also enable the organization to respond readily to demands that are set and make decision making easy. Bureaucratic systems have a greater sense of direction and purpose than other types of organization structure. The clear-cut criteria of a bureaucratic system enable the organization to appoint successors when an employee leaves without little trouble, and therefore causes as little disruption. The disadvantages that a bureaucratic system brings to the overall running and efficiency of a business and its employees include...
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