Abstract: The theory of bureaucracy was proposed and published by Marx Weber (1947). Although there are some studies on this perspective were discussed before him, those theories did not form as systematic theory. After Weber, the issue of bureaucracy becomes a hot topic in the field of social organization. Almost all well-known scholars such as Martin and Henri have published their views on it. Bureaucracy adapted as the traditional organizational model during industrial society, essentially, bureaucracy could exist rational. This essay firstly will review the principle of bureaucracy in organization based on organizational design perspective. Secondly, it will analyze the strengths and weakness of bureaucracy made by Weber, focusing on Weber’s contribution for large contemporary organization design their structure and consider the attitude of those organizations toward bureaucracy: confirmed, rejected, adapted or added to. Finally it will consider the performance of bureaucracy organization in modern society with examples.
1. Introduction for Weber’s bureaucracy theory1
2. Strengths of employing bureaucracy into organizational design2 2.1 Division and selection of labor based on specialization2 2.2 A vertical hierarchic management system3
2.3 Clear norms and rules4
3. Weakness of employing bureaucracy into organizational design5 3.1 Staleness rules and working process5
3.2 Overstaffing and corruption5
3.3 Controlled centralized6
3.4 Iron Cage of control6
3.5 Hard to change7
4. Evaluation of Weber’s bureaucracy theory7
5. The success or failure of the affair is all to bureaucracy7 5.1 Rapid development for success8
5.2 Loss support of public feeling8
1. Introduction for Weber’s bureaucracy theory
Max Weber, a famous German scholar and thinker. In his life work, pay close attention to the relationship between modern politics and human freedom. In this statement, Weber emphasizes rule, ability and knowledge, which provide an efficient and rational framework for the establishment of administrative system. He considers that ideal administrative organization should based on reasonable and legitimate rights. Along with the development of Weber’s ideas, individuals and non-rational factors reduced gradually, the same as the elimination of emotional factors (Wilson, 1989). Thus, Weber’s bureaucracy theory moving toward the direction of idealized and mature. Weber’s study was widely adapted by the organization in society because bureaucratic is essential process of human development. Weber’s bureaucracy theory not a new management system, only a summary of social practice, but made a great contribution in the course of historical development (Taylor, 1911). However, with the development of modern society, disadvantages of bureaucratic organization are increasingly exposed. Rational bureaucracy has some congenital structural deficiencies and over development, as consequently, there are some conflicts between post-industrial societies and bureaucracy theory, focusing on the unique factors of capitalist civilization and use ideal approach to take these factors into three core concepts: power, authority and validity . Weber believe that any organization must be structured based on some kind of rights. Without those rights, no organization can achieve their goals. According to Weber (1911), there are three types of legitimate authority: traditional authority, charismatic authority and rational (legal) authority. In the case of organizational design, it is necessary to deeply analysis all aspects of rational authority. Legally authority is built on the trust of regulations and rules of behavior. Rules as the basis of rule, an order have its authoritative effect only within the statutory requirements. As Weber call it rational-legal right, it is...