Building Diversity Competence in Supervision

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Notwithstanding that it is a core component of psychology training, diversity is one of the most neglected areas in supervision training and research. The majority of attention to diversity has been devoted to culture— just one particular aspect—rather than to the broader construct. Diversity includes culture in all its aspects, as well as socioeconomic status, race, religion, disabilities or ableness, age, gender, and sexual orientation, all of which may converge and intersect (Bingham, Porche-Burke, James, Sue, & Vasquez, 2002). As Ridley, Mendoza, and Kanitz (1994) stated, "educators with the best of intentions find themselves caught between the press to provide MCT (multicultural training) and the dual disadvantage of their own inadequate training and the embryonic state of the field" (p. 228). This is the case not only for culture but also for all areas of diversity. Clinicians report lower self-perceived competence levels in work with clients with motor and sensory impairment and with Hispanic, Black Hispanic, Asian American, and Native American clients (Allison, Echemendia, Crawford, & Robinson, 1996). That consideration of diversity is essential to psychology training is unequivocal. In this chapter, we describe the required role of diversity in psychology training, the current state of the art, barriers to integration of diversity into psychology training, and definitions of multicultural competence. Conceptualizations of culture are considered as well as approaches to acculturation 115

as they apply to supervision. Emic (conceptions common to a particular ethnic or minority group and thus explicative) and etic (conceptions universal to people across culture) parameters are applied to training and to supervision. We then outline gender and sexual orientation as they have been approached in training models, providing a context to training efforts. We also review the relative deficits in training in disabilities and age as they affect supervision. The final sections focus on enhancing diversity competence and development of multicultural competence through understanding theories of racial and minority development and assessment techniques. These concepts serve as benchmarks and standards for diversity competency in programs such as internships and other training programs. In "Domain D: Cultural and Individual Differences and Diversity," the Committee on Accreditation of the American Psychological Association (APA) lays out a framework for internship programs: The program recognizes the importance of cultural and individual differences and diversity in the training of psychologists. 1. The program has made systematic, coherent, and long-term efforts to attract and retain interns and staff from differing ethnic, racial, and personal backgrounds into the program. Consistent with such efforts, it acts to ensure a supportive and encouraging learning environment appropriate for the training of diverse individuals and the provision of training opportunities for a wide spectrum of individuals. Further the program avoids any action that would restrict program access on grounds that are irrelevant to success in internship training or a career in professional psychology. 2. The program has a thoughtful and coherent plan to provide interns with relevant knowledge and experiences about the role of cultural and individual diversity in psychological phenomena and professional practice. It engages in positive efforts designed to ensure that interns will have opportunities to learn about cultural and individual diversity as they relate to the practice of psychology. The avenues by which these goals are achieved are to be developed by the program." (APA, Committee on Accreditation, 2002e, p. 16).

The "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" (APA, 2002a) states the following: Where scientific or professional knowledge in the discipline of psychology establishes...
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