Building Defects

Topics: Masonry, Building defects, Coefficient of thermal expansion Pages: 20 (6739 words) Published: February 23, 2011

Identify common building defects
Identify the source
Provide pictures, diagrams and sketches
Suggest remedial action
Show details that would have avoided the defect

Generate a scheme for planned maintenance and provide a building checklist to ensure all necessary maintenance is carried out on a regular basis.

In this project we will be looking at many different kinds of building defects that would be commonly seen in the construction industry. As well as going into detail about the different types of defects using images, cad drawings, and photographs we will also be looking at how to spot the early signs, and how, once a defect has been noticed to fix them.

The number of defects we will be looking at is 15, and they are as followed,

Wet Rot
Dry Rot
Thermal expansion
Architectural acoustics
Chemical attack
Freeze/thaw action
Failure under load
Splitting (wood)
Fire spread

The first building defect we will be looking at is dry rot and wet rot. Wet rot is a fungal attack on wood that can have serious affects if it is not taken care of properly. Wet rot is dry rot that is after getting worse, dry occurs when wood has about 20% moisture content but if not taken care of at this stage and the wood gets damper (about 50%-60%) then wet rot sets in. Wet rot can be identified by looking at areas that are more likely to get it for an example a door joinery, the wood around the joinery would be a lot darker then the surrounding would also the wood which normally would be ridged would be spongy to touch these are all signs of wet rot. The problem would be when the wood dries out it would crumble into fine particles which would not be good if it was part of the load barring structure. We can also so break this down to three levels the molecular, structural, engineering levels. The engineering level is the effects we can see with the naked eye in this case it would discoloration and fungal growths. At the structure level we would see up close using a microscope the cell structure of the wood and how it is being affected. Finally we could look at the molecular level at this level we would be able to see the fungus in more detail so that it can be identified properly we can also see if the fungus is thriving or dying. How to treat wet rot: First of all treat any structural problem; there is no point in repairing the damage to the timber if it is going to reappear. If wet rot occurs in structural timbers (such as roof trusses, floor joists), you must first make sure that the wet rot has not weakened the structural integrity. In other areas, the rotten timbers should be removed and replaced; if the damaged area is fairly small, it can be cut away and a new piece of timber joined to that remaining. If the damage is confined to a very small area, an epoxy based repair kit can be used to fill the damaged area once it has been cut back to normal timber and the new surface of the wood treated with a suitable primer. Preservative tablets are available which are inserted into the timber adjacent to the repaired area to protect the timber 'from within'. If there is any doubt that the structural problem has been eliminated, the new and adjoining timber should be treated with a proprietary wet rot treatment before redecorating. To stop wet rot ever happing be sure that the wood is kept dry at all times, that wood is finished properly with a good coat of paint, try not to let the wood come in contact with at wet or damp wall all these steps should stop the wet rot from coming in the first place. Here are some examples of wet rot:

Dry rot like wet rot is a fungus that likes to attack wood that has a moisture content of about 20%. Unlike wet rot dry rot is more destructive to buildings. Dry rot occurs in damp and...
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