In general definition, budgeting is the concerned with the transaction of financial resources into human purpose. Budget is refer to the spring financial statement, which focus on tax. There are a few principles of good budgeting that is comprehensiveness,predictability, transparency and periodicity. Budgeting is effective in facility process when it forces awareness of overall fiscal constraints, enables the priontization of spending in the linewith policy objective. The budget objective is to aggregate fiscal disipline, allocative efficiency and operational efficiency. The budgeting process can begin with preparing a sales budget. Based on expected sales volume, merchandisers can budget purchases, selling expenses, and administrative expenses. Next, the capital expenditures budget is prepared, which includes all budgeted purchases and direct labor. There are three type of budget, that is balance, surplus and deficit.
2.0 BUDGET BALANCE
Budget balance is situation in financial planning or the budgeting process where total revenue is equal or greater than total expenses. In other words, a budget can be considered balanced in hindsight, after a full year’s worth of revenue and expenses have been incurred and record. For instance, a company’s operating budget for an upcoming year can also be called balanced based on predictions on estimates. A balanced budget occurs when the total sum of money government collects in a year is equal to the amount it spends on goods, services and debt interest. The budget balance is usually reported as percent of GDP. 2.1 Balanced-Budget Multiplier
Balanced-budget multiplier is a measure of the change in aggregate production caused by equal to one, meaning that the multiplier effect of a change in taxes offsets all but the initial production triggered by the change in government purchases. This multiplier is the combination of the expenditures multiplier, which measures the change in aggregate production caused by changes in an aggregate production caused by changes in taxes.
The logic behind this multiplier comes from the government’s budget, which includes both spending and taxes. In general, a balanced budget has equality between spending and taxes. As such, the balanced-budget multiplier analyze what happens when there is equality between changes in government purchases and taxes, that is, actions that keep the budget ‘balanced’
The balanced-budget multiplier is equal to one. The positive impact on aggregate production made by a change in government purchases is largely, but completely, offset by the negative impact of the changes in taxes. The only part of the impact of the change in government purchases not offset by the change in taxes is the purchase of aggregate production made by the initial injection. Hence, the change in aggregate production is equal to the initial change in government purchases. Formula;
m[bb]= Balanced- budget multiplier
MPS= Marginal propensity to save
MPC= Marginal propensity to consume
3.0 BUDGET DEFICIT
A government budget deficit is the amount by which some measure of government revenues falls short of some measure of government spending. If a government is running a positive budget deficit, it is also said to be running a negative budget surplus (and conversely, a positive budget surplus is a negative budget deficit). 3.1 Primary deficit, total deficit, and debt
The meaning of 'deficit' differs from that of 'debt', which is an accumulation of yearly deficits. Deficits occur when a government's expenditures exceed the revenue that it generates. The deficit can be measured with or without including the interest payments on the debt as expenditures.
The primary deficit is defined as the difference between current government spending on goods and services and total current revenue from all types of taxes net of transfer payments. The total deficit (which is often called the...