Buad 304 Notes for Midterm 1

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Basic Leadership Model:
Knowledge of Organizational Behavior x Behavioral Skills = Leadership Effectiveness

Labs for applications of skills learned on Fridays

Individual Level: how members are motivated and how they make sense of the world Group Level: How teams function and how to lead teams. Power & politics and ethical decision making Organization Level: How to structure the firm, how to select and develop talent, how to change organization, and how to create & sustain culture

What we will learn in labs:

Behavioral Skills-
• Facilitate team decision making
• Communicate effectively
• Exercise power wisely
• Negotiate effectively
• Manage organization change

Organizational Behavior Borrows from multiple disciplines:
Indiv: anthro, polysci, econ
Group: sociology
Organization: social psychology, psych

Themes in the evolution of OB knowledge: (OB=orgbehav)
• Historical context affects what is studied
• Cultural contexts limits general applicability of theories • Theories become more complex and less applicable over time • Theories include more contingencies over time: “it all depends”

OB depends on the history and cultures of different countries thus we should be thinking about how what we discuss in class might be applicable in other countries. We are in fact living in a “global business” these days.

History of OB:

Early 1900’s:
• Work at home/ shops connected to homes
• People chose when where and how they worked
• People were known by their product
• They took pride in their work
• No national economy, everything was localized
• Only large corporations of the time were military and churches • You were an artist in the time of your own trade
• Adam Smith: benefits of division of labor and mastering your job Turn of the Century:
• Machinery comes into play
• Now people don’t work from home, rather they work at the factory • Now you are only doing work which is part of the overall task • Now there is a lot of machinery so you need more people • People change from working alone or with a couple others to working with thousands of people • Inefficiency come to play because you now can’t work they same way you would have worked at home • Now you need managers and planners

• Size is inefficient and makes work more chaotic
• purpose is to drive down cost and increase profit and increase the market • this inefficiency leads to science entering business for the first time

Scientific Management: cult of efficiency
• Fredrick winslow taylor-engineer by training who was employed by a large steel mill • Taylor sees inefficiency everywhere he looks; no work standard, different work paces and no formal structure • He starts studying work

• Task analysis and experiments to find the most efficient way to perform any human task and standardization • Firms quickly start adopting standards established by scientific management • Taylor also established that pay should be linked to performance • He also determines that firms should implement systematic selection and training in order to match the correct people to work Now that the “shop floor” inefficiency was fixed, there was a managerial inefficiency that was to be fixed by a new sort of management known as CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT: train of thought which came from military • Functions: planning, organizing, directing, staffing and controlling • Principles: specialization, unity of command, scalar chain and span of control Now the question is how do we maximize human performance?:

Hawthorne Studies: Human Relations at Western Electric
They wanted to know how they could get more performance out of human beings. What was the effect on human performance of lighting, rest, length of work day, and pay on...
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