Chapter 1 – Chapter 12
1. Define: Living Cell
The living cell is the functional basic unit of life.
2. What is PCR?
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a fast and inexpensive technique used to copy small segments of DNA. 3. Discriminate between microevolution and macroevolution
Microevolution is the changes in allele frequencies that occur over time within a population. This change is due to mutation, natural selection gene flow, and genetic drift.
Macroevolution is concerned with evolution on the grand scale, with the branching out of new species and larger groups, like families and phyla. 4. Compare conditions of early earth to those of the present
The conditions of early earth:
* No oxygen in the atmosphere, mostly CO2, N2 and H2O.
* Frequent meteorite impacts.
* No life on earth.
* Surface temperatures well above 100oC, so all water was in the atmosphere. * The moon was much closer than it is today, so would have been much larger in the sky. * The sun was much dimmer than today, so it would have been quite dark, even in the daytime. * Volcanoes were very common and active.
* There were no continents, as we know them today.
5. Define: species
A species is a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. 6. What is Natural Science?
Natural science is the branch of knowledge that deals with the study of the physical world. 7. Know the four types of biological compounds and the basic subunits each is constructed
* Monosaccharide e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose
* Disaccharide e.g. sucrose, lactose, maltose
* Polysaccharide e.g. starch, cellulose, glycogen
* Saturated fatty acid
* Unsaturated fatty acid
* Saturated lipid i.e. fat
* Unsaturated lipid i.e. oil
* Amino acid
* Polypeptide chain (primary protein structure)
* Polypeptide helix or pleated sheet
* Folded polypeptide chain
* Joined folded polypeptide chains
8. Describe what happens in a chemical reaction
A chemical reaction involves the transfer or sharing of electrons. One of more substances creates one or more substances. Each new substance has new chemical and physical properties.
9. All atoms of a given element have the same number of ________ in their nuclei.
10. Isotopes are atoms differing in the number of ________ in their nuclei.
11. Radioactive decay occurs because certain isotopes of an element have more than the “normal” number of what?
Protons or Neutrons
12. Describe how this fact is used for radiometric dating.
Radiometric dating, also known as radioactive dating, is a procedure used in science to determine the absolute age of an object. Carbon dating is a form of this type of procedure, but is only useful on carbonaceous materials. This process works by determining the amount of radioactive isotopes in an object. From this can be determined the amount of radioactive decay that has occurred, thus verifying the age of the object. 13. How long will it take a solution to settle out? A suspension?
A solution, like salt water, will never settle out.
14. Pure water has a pH of
15. A solution with a pH of 1 is what?
16. A solution with a pH of 14 is what?
17. Is pure distilled water a conductor or an insulator?
Pure water is an insulator.
18. Know the two types of cells and how they are differentiated.
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles, such as Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. An example of a eukaryotic cell is an animal cell.
Prokaryotic cells don't have a "true nucleus" and are single-celled organisms. An example of this...