Formal Lab Report #1
Lab Partners: Gety Mpanu-Mpanu, Gabriella Velayos-Loredo and Miguel
On the next lab report we deal with enzymes, and its main purpose and functions, enzymes are the natural catalyst that exist in a cell that determinates the pace of the chemical reactions. The simple hypothesis consists with 2 (two) factors: time of reaction, and temperature, and can be taken as: When the temperature of a reaction increases, the time for the starch needs to breakdown decreases, in other words they are in directly proportional to each other. Since this was our hypothesis (Ha) we can determinate that our Ho would be that the temperature does not chance the time of breakdown of the starch. This procedure is going to be base in 2 (two) basis, 1 Fungal amylase, and 2 the human amylase, and the criteria to test it breakdown will be check with an Iodine test, which turns from yellow to blue-black in the presence of starch. The parameters to test the hypothesis where: 0, 40, 60, and 95 degrees Celsius, and 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes. After the procedure is completed we learned the hypothesis (Ha) can be taken as a good parameter, and the temperate is directly proportional to the starch breakdown.
To every procedure there is one fact that permits it has some kind of pattern or pace that allows and defines it’s time to start and finish. This can be based in artificial procedures. For example: The time that a computer takes to process one program, or burn a mixed cd. This procedure is affected for many different facts, primarily the type of processor the computer has, which will determinate the velocity of the process. In the natural form this type of factor or catalyst can be an enzyme.
The enzyme basically works by decreasing the amount of energy that is needed to perform a reaction. (Activation energy) As everything, there is an exact moment when all the components works as it best and from that point all goes backwards. In the enzymes this is known as the optimal temperature. To find this optimal temperature can be helpful to future procedures so it will save time, and accelerate to it maximum the process of breakdown. The amylase (in human and fungal) has an inclination to starch polymers in different and smaller particles that come within like: Maltriose, Maltose, and Short oligosaccharide. This makes the perfect subject to test and find out the effects the temperature has in it. Is a fact known that higher temperatures can change completely the way a reaction happens. The hypothesis is: When the temperature of a reaction increases, the time for the starch needs to breakdown decreases (Ha). While our (Ho) is make the other way around: The temperature increasing does not affect the time of the starch breakdown. Finally, after the hypothesis is proven as true, another factor will be taken in count. The optimal temperature where both amylase (Human and Fungal) has the faster and perfect time to react is going to be a number between the one tested and will be determinate by an iodine test.
Materials and methods
Set up 2 spot plates as shown in figure 5.5 place a napkin under the spot plate and write the temperatures. Obtain 4 test tubes label them with each temperature. Add 5mL of starch into each test tube. The temperature will be change by water bath of 0 (ice) 40, 60, and 95 degrees Celsius. For the human amylase collect 5ml of saliva from members of your group, transfer to the test tube and dilute them in distilled water. Allow the test tube to rest for 5 minutes. Add 2 drops of iodine into each well. Put the starch solution into each treatment. After each additional 2 min, repeat last step and make sure the starch and amylase mix. Take temperature. Make sure to use a separate transfer pipette for each temperature treatment. After 2 minutes, use the correct transfer pipette for every single temperature to...
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