For the view point of the psychologists, “personal space” is the important term. The “personal space” is reflect that each of the different relationship for person, easy to let psychologists know the phenomenon of different people’s relationship and let them research more detail about this invisible communication. Moreover, that is also a benefit on other types of professional jobs such as doctor, lawyers, and teacher. For example, teacher can observe their students, after that teacher can formulate different type of teaching skills to let students learn better.
The definition for the words “personal space”, that is the variable and subjective distance at which one person feels “comfortable talking” to another. In addition, (Hayduk, 1978) states that “personal space” also explains by the area by-self that keep around themselves who others people can’t join in the space cause feel uncomfortable.
The first factor to be considered is personal space. Different cultural would have different value of the life-style for each person, so that is easy to offend other people who cannot accept the action or behavioral. As (Bonvillian and Nowlin ,1994) try the experiment that make different cultural people who are Arabs and Africans up into a personal space, the result is uncomfortable by the close conversation distance between Arabs and Africans. As a result, that’s reflect the different cultural is a very big reason to offend the “personal space”, especially violating the norms of culture, that maybe change to more serious problem like criminal offense.
Gender is also a factor that changing the “personal space”. Actually, male and female have different size of body such as height and weight; moreover habit also may have different. They will have different types of “personal space” depend on the role or behavior among two types of the sex. ”The concept of personal space has recently received considerable attention from social scientists, who have explored spatial contingencies in a variety of situations.” (Harnett, Bailey and Hartley)
Last but not least, Eye-contact is a factor that impacts the “personal space”. “Eye contact and facial expression may affect the violation of personal space.”(Goldman and Hughes, 1978) Buchanan, Goldman and Juhnke (1977) also say that gazing (eye-contact) is directly avoiding the possibility of eye-contact grows the spatial. As a result, eye-contact with someone who is stranger will feel uncomfortable.
In conclusion about the eye-contact, the “personal space” will be bigger when no eye-contact happens. Here are two conditions, one is with eye-contact and another one is without eye-contact. One person will be asking for standstill and one participant will walk faster than him until he feels uncomfortable and offend . The personal space of participant will be representing the distance continuing between the confederate and participant and will measure by centimeters.
The experiment had 83 participants who ages ranged between 17-36 years old. (M=18.95, SD=2.52). These participants are the students who studying Behavioral Science in the University of Queensland Foundation Year. The participants were from the following countries; China (32), Hong Kong (20), Japan (2), Korea (4), Kuwait (4), Malaysia (4), Mexico (1), Mozambique (1), PNG (1), Saudi Arabia (1), Singapore (4), Solomon Is (1), Taiwan (3), Turkey (1), UAE (1), Vietnam (2), Zimbabwean (1). This social science experiment was the curriculum for the students’ course. The participants were voluntary with no payment included and written informed consent given. We group this data from four classes. In the experiment, we had one confederate and two assistants. In class one, the confederate in this experiment was 19 years old male who come from Maldives. The assistants were two males who come from China and Hong Kong, 19 and 18 years old...