Bronchopneumonia

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BRONCHOPNEUMONIA

Bronchopneumonia or bronchial pneumonia or Bronchogenic pneumonia is a type of pneumonia that is characterized by an inflammation of the lung generally associated with, and following a bout with bronchitis. This inflammation starts in the small bronchial tubes the bronchioles, and irregularly spreads to the peribronchiolar alveoli and alveolar ducts with a diameter of about 3 to 4 inches. The result is that the inflammatory changes lead to the localized inflammatory consolidation in bronchioles and their surrounding alveoli of the lungs. Bronchopneumonia is more common in elderly people, and in association with other viral respiratory illnesses (bronchitis), and as a complication of those who have asthma. Pneumonia, including bronchopneumonia is a fairly common illness and it affects millions of people annually in the United States. Bronchopneumonia can be a serious threat to our health. The severity of the illness will depend on the type of bacteria or infection causing the illness, as well as the overall health of the person who has bronchopneumonia.

Anatomy

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Figure 1: anatomy of the lung

The lungs are paired, cone-shaped organs which take up most of the space in our chest, along with the heart. Their role is to take oxygen into the body, which we need for our cells to live and function properly, and to help us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product. We each have two lungs, a left lung and a right lung. These are divided up into 'lobes’ or big sections of tissue separated by 'fissures' or dividers. The right lung has three lobes but the left lung has only two, because the heart takes up some of the space in the left side of our chest. The lungs can also be divided up into even smaller portions, called 'bronchopulmonary segments’. These are pyramidal shaped areas which are also separated from each other by membranes. There are about 10 of them in each lung. Each segment receives its own blood supply and air supply. Air enters your lungs through a system of pipes called the bronchi. These pipes start from the bottom of the trachea as the left and right bronchi and branch many times throughout the lungs, until they eventually form little thin-walled air sacs or bubbles, known as the alveoli. The alveoli are where the important work of gas exchange takes place between the air and your blood. Covering each alveolus is a whole network of little blood called capillaries, which are very small branches of the pulmonary arteries.

[pic]
Figure 2: bronchioles in the lung

 
It is important that the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries are very close together, so that oxygen and carbon dioxide can move or diffuse between them. So, when you breathe in, air comes down the trachea and through the bronchi into the alveoli. This fresh air has lots of oxygen in it, and some of this oxygen will travel across the walls of the alveoli into your bloodstream. Travelling in the opposite direction is carbon dioxide, which crosses from the blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli and is then breathed out. In this way, you bring in to your body the oxygen that you need to live, and get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide Case report

This is a case of 23 years old man. This patient is admitted at hospital on February 7. Prior to admission, the patient state that the onset of illness was occur 3 weeks before he was admitted and he said that he experience difficulty of breathing and associated with chest pain and back pain. Patient said when he experiences those symptoms he stop working and rest for a while because he thinks that those symptoms can relieve by a vacation.

Pathophysiology

Pneumonia can be transmitted when airborne microbes from an infected...
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