British Colonization

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Europe expansion to India began in 18th century had great changes in various field such as economics politic, society, culture and so on. Especially, after British imperialism which became a ruler of India had great effect on India. As a result, there are many essential changes in language and customs in India and even thought they gained independence from British rule 200 years ago, the influence on the British colonial era has still remained in many ways. One of the most factors that the British lunched the colonization of India was the establishment of the East India Company. Throughout the 16th century to early 17th century, the demand for spices in Europe had continued to increase. At early 1600s, the Portuguese were the only European country which imported spices from the East. They dominated the spice trade with Asia because Vasco da Gama was the first European to arrive in India. Having arrived in Calicut he obtained from Saamoothiri Rajah permission to trade in the city. However the Dutch ousted the Portuguese from East and became the exclusive supplier of spices to Europe. British traders frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean The East India Company had the unusual distinction of ruling an entire country. In 1600, the East India Company was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I for trade with Asia. They decided to head on to India for trade because at this time Portugal that had powerful trade with East Asia was losing control of East Asian Spice trade transformed by the European Age of Discovery. However, the East India Company had to confront and deal with the Dutch to increase the trade. At that point, The Dutch East India Company was a peak in 1669. They employed around 10000 soldiers, 40 warships and 150 merchant ships. and had a good position trading with Asia by reason of good ship captains, merchants, banker and financiers. Therefore, it was important for England to be done about the Dutch to increase trade. According to The East India Company Lobby, Charles ⅱ’ sought favorable terms for the East India Company in European nation and established the Council of Trade of 1660 to deal with their grievances. Parliament also helped the merchants. In 1663 it sanctioned exports of bullion and foreign currency for the first time. It tried to restrict Dutch commercial superiority in the fishing, spice, and wool trades. In short, the effort of the British government to help the Company against the Dutch provided benefits for many English traders. So they began to send ships to the Spice trade with India. In addition, the East India Company was comparatively easy to expand in India because of the decline of Mughal power. In that time, the Mughal Empire was an lslamic imperial power in Indian subcontinent which began in 1526. They were descendants of the Timurids and controlled most of the Indian Subcontinent. In 1612, The British got a major victory over the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally. And the East India Company decided to explore the feasibility of gaining a territorial foothold in mainland in India and requested the Crown to launch a diplomatic. In 1627, the Mughal Emperor Jahangir granted the India Company permission to build a fortified factory at the principal Mughal port of Surat. However, the factory at Bombay became the headquarters of the Company. Eventually the region was divided into the three presidencies of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. In consequence, they were still responsible to the Court of Directors in London and the East India Company garnered huge profits generated by a system of triangular trade that saw English gold and silver coins traded for Indian goods. It is not much say that British rule in India was originated from having begun in 1757. On June 23rd of that year, at the Battle of Plassey, a small village and mango grove between Calcutta and Murshidabad, the forces of the East India Company under Robert Clive defeated the...
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