TD : bleu ; Cours : noir
Roman period: Julius Caesar conquered Britain but was tracked by the British. * Middle of the 1st century BC: Julius Caesar was interested in the conquest of Britain. He invaded it in 55 BC. He decided to make an expedition to Britain and gathered a fleet but was tracked by the British cavalry. * Claudius conquered the south of Britain and sent a giant invasion force in AD43. * Hadrian built a wall across northern Britain in AD122 to keep the Scottish in Scotland. Barbarian invasion: 410 (end of the Roman Empire), 450 (1st wave of invasion), 8th century (the Vikings arrived in Scotland: 5th-8th centuries were the Dark Ages), 865 (the Vikings are in England), 10th century (the Danish arrived in England). * AD410: end of the British power caused by the barbarian invasions and the destruction of Rome (end of its empire). * AD450: the Barbarians stayed in the south, they didn’t kill natives and wanted to live there * First wave of invasion.
* 8th century: Vikings settled in Scotland and the Scottish moved eastward. * 865: the Vikings invaded England. Alfred the Great stopped them in 871 but allowed them to settle in Eastern England. * 10th century: the Danish armies came back to England.
* 1017: king of Denmark captured the English crown
* The Scandinavians ruled England.
* 1042: Edward the Confessor became king and had no heir which created a war of succession. William the Conqueror: 1066 (battle of Hastings where he claimed himself monarch), 1078 (Tower of London), 1086 (Doomsday Book). * 1066: Battle of Stamford Bridge where the Saxons won over the invading Vikings. Battle of Hastings where William came to England to claim he was the legitimate monarch. His army met that of Harold’s (another pretender) but Harold died. There was a transfer of power from English to Norman ruling aristocracy. William took lands to give to Normans. The new dynasty put an end to the invasions. There was architectural works. * 1070: Canterbury cathedral.
* 1078: Tower of London.
* 1086: Doomsday Book (day of the last judgment), named land owners, areas (etc.) in Latin. * The Norman Conquest had an impact on the language, after people spoke anglonormans/latin and English combined with French. Magna Carta (1215): feudal system (all tenants of lands held estates from the king, superior lord). Magna Carta is a document accepted by King John that established the rights through a series of law of English barons. It’s the base of individual rights and states that there’s two heads: the pope and the king. Feudal laws existed during Norman Conquest.
* 1215: Magna Carta (The Great Charter) sealed by King John (he lost Normandy and Poitou because of wars and was under pressure of his barons). Barons complained about taxation and the justice system. The charter is a list of concessions; courts are to be separated from religion. * 1st stage on the road to a parliamentary government.
* The king has little to say about politics.
II. MIDDLE AGES AND THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR (14th-15th CENTURY) Town and countries: agriculture was more effective, there were a lot of people in the cities and life was hard and short. London was the biggest town of Britain. The population grew a lot * 1150: beginning of cash economy
Great European famine and plague: 14th century (climate is cold, poor harvests so the food is expensive), 1348 (Black Death, a disease that killed half of the London population). * 14th century: population was hungry, there were social protests. * 1348: the Black Death touched all Europe, it was a horrible disease (skin would turn black…) The hundred years’ war (1337-1453): the English king wanted to rule over France so France made an alliance with the Scottish. It was a series of conflicts and there were long moments of peace. Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine. In 1153, the main goal was to conquer...