British Civilization

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British civilization
Introduction:
Everything starts with William the conqueror on Christmas day 1066. William was the king of Westminster abbey and he was acclaimed when he arrived after he crossed the channel. This is the starting point of the history of modern Britain. Britain is a bland of modernism and tradition. (Cradle=berceau) William came and unified the country he also introduced the idea of a kind of parliament. He unified the country in unified the justice. It’s all started in 1066 and it’s in constant evolution until today. Definition:

Tyranny= Absolute power vested in a single ruler. The authority of the tyrant Tyranny is different that monarchy (lac of democracy)
Monarchy= the warrant of democracy (le guarant) is a state or a nation in which the supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in a monarch Democracy= free and equal representation of the people. The members are elected by the people with a universal suffrage The parliament = is the supreme legislative body of a major political unit and it is the place for the discussion of public matters. In Britain it is the British House of Common (democratic and elected house makes laws and check the work of the government). Parlement parle (les élus les députés) Members of parliament/ le gouvernement gouverne (les ministres),

The historial Landmark ( 6 dynasties)
1) The Plantagenets (les rois d’Angleterre et les reines de France se sont mariés partager le même royaume pour dominer tout le territoire) from the 12 th century to 15th. Henry the second married Eleanor d’Aquitaine ( the most important king) which mean that de kingdom of France and of England were only one kingdom by marriage. The war with France ( important) After the Normand conquest the Plant (1154- 1485) reigned over England 2) The Tudors , Henry 8(1509-1547) , he killed almost of his wife and he decided to refuse the authority of the pope because the Pope refused to grant him divorce with Catherine of Aragon so he became the head of the church in England and defender of the faith. Anne Boleyn was the mother of Elisabeth. His daughter queen Elisabeth the first (1558-1603) is very important because she was considered almost like a goddess that much important because we were in the Renaissance, everything happened ( the art was flourishing) . She was church of England, she was very tolerant (she accepted different religious). Her time was considered as the golden age of England. At that time there was also war with Spain. There were numerous social reforms about poverty of the poor on Elisabeth reign. She was the first to do social reforms.

3) The two English revolutions. Charles 1st (1625-1649) why was he beheaded? Because he socked and was dangerous . He wanted more power than parliament. Cromwell lord protector he was the first to use de word commonwealth. In 1616 the monarchy was restored with Charles 2st.

Hanoverians are a German dynasty . The first king could not speak in English and when he became king of England as he could not speak he decided to use Latin with his ministers. Robert walpolethe prime minister (first prime minister to govern a state of monarchy which passed peacefully into the prime minister hands) of George the first became the head of power because the actual king didn’t care about England, he only cared about Germany. It wasn’t a revolution only evolution. The parliament became powerful. The Victoria age (1837-1901): longest reign was queen of England Ireland and Empress of India. Glaststone (liberal party) and Disrails(conservative party) were the two most important prime ministers. Victoria and Elisabeth were different. Queen Victoria didn’t really reign it was the parliament and the government. Why was she one of the greatest monarchs of all time? She advised the prime ministers and had influence on them on the ruling of the empire. She was no poppet. Also the time of the industrial revolution with the rail way and new machines....
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