Britain Enacts Reforms
* Britain became a constitutional monarchy in the late 1600s. * The monarch serves as the head of state, but Parliament holds the real power. * The British Parliament consists of a House of Lords and a House of Commons. * In the early 1800s, the method of selecting the British government was not a true democracy. * Only about five percent of the population had the right to elect the members of the House of Commons. * Voting was limited to men who owned a substantial amount of land. Women could not vote at all. * The upper class ran the government. The first group to demand a greater voice in politics was the wealthy middle class like factory owners, bankers, and merchants. * Protests took place around England in favor of a bill in Parliament beginning in the 1830. * Suffrage- the right to vote
* Parliamentary leaders feared that the revolutionary violence would spread to Britain. * Parliament passed the Reform Bill of 1832.
* Law eased the property requirements so that well-to-do men in the middle class could vote. * The Reform Bill also modernized the districts for electing members of Parliament and gave the thriving new industrial cities more representation. * A popular movement arose among g the workers and other groups who still could not vote to press for more rights called the Chartist Movement. * The People’s Charter called for suffrage for all men and annual Parliamentary elections. It also proposed to reform Parliament in other ways. * The Chartists wanted to make Parliament responsive to the lower classes. To do this, they demanded a secret ballot, an end to property requirements for serving in Parliament, and pay for members of Parliament. * Parliament rejected the Chartists’ demands. However, their protests convinced many people that the workers had valid complaints. * In 1867, Parliament responded to the workers’ political reform and gave the vote to working-class men in 1867 and to male rural workers in 1884. * After 1884, most adult males in Britain had the right to vote. * Victoria came to the throne in 1837 at the age of 18.
* Was Queen for nearly 64 years.
* During the Victorian Age, the British Empire reached the maximum of its wealth and power. * She was forced to accept a less powerful role for the monarchy. Women Get The Vote
* By 1890, several industrial countries had universal male suffrage (the right of all men to vote). * No country allowed women to vote.
* Women demanded the same rights as men to vote.
* During the 1800s, women
* In both Great Britain and the United States worked to gain the right to vote. * Both men and women thought that woman suffrage was too radical a break with tradition. * Emmeline Pankhurst formed the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903. * The WSPU became the most militant organization for women’s rights. * Goal was to draw attention to the cause of woman suffrage. * Emmeline Pankhurst, her daughters Christabel and Sylvia, and other WSPU members were arrested and imprisoned many times. * When they were jailed, the Pankhursts led hunger strikes to keep their cause in the public eye. * Though the woman suffrage movement gained attention between 1880 and 1914, its successes were gradual. * Women did not gain the right to vote in national elections in Great Britain and the United States until after World War I. France and Democracy
* While Great Britain moved toward greater democracy in the late 1800s, democracy finally took hold in France. * In the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War, France went through a series of crises. * . Between 1871 and 1914, France averaged a change of government almost yearly. A dozen political parties competed for power. * Not until 1875 could the National Assembly agree on a new government. * Eventually, the members voted to set up a republic. The Third Republic lasted over 60...
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