Brief Human Body System Run-Through

Topics: Blood, Heart, Digestion Pages: 4 (1421 words) Published: March 31, 2011
The digestive system’s function is to break down food and to absorb its nutrients into the bloodstream, which will deliver them around the body. (Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, 2011).. The organs are grouped into two sections- the alimentary canal and the accessory organs respectively. Organs in the alimentary canal are the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and anus. Accessory organs are the liver, pancreas and gallbladder. [ (National Institute Of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2008) ] Food does not go through the accessory organs but these organs help with chemical digestion. For example, the liver produces bile, a fat-absorbing liquid stored by the gallbladder whilethe pancreas is involved in the production of enzymes (Integrated Publishing).The alimentary canal is a tube through which food passes. There are two types of digestion- mechanical and chemical. Mechanical digestion is when food is physically broken down. Chemical digestion is when enzymes break down food. (Joe, 2009) Food starts to be broken down in the mouth. Once it is chewed up and ready to move on from the mouth, the food forms a bolus. The bolus moves through the oesophagus- a track from the mouth to the stomach- into the stomach. The oesophagus contains muscles called peristalsis to prevent vomiting. The stomach continues breaking food down, mixing it with gastric juices and hydrochloric acid to kill harmful bacteria(GESA, 2006). The stomach is lined with mucus to stop the acid eating into the stomach wall. The bolus is now a thick liquid known as chyme. The chyme moves through into the small intestine, where absorption occurs. The small intestine contains projections known as villi on its walls which increase the surface area of the small intestine for greater absorption of nutrients (National Institute Of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2008). Food breakdown continues and the nutrients go through the intestinal walls into the...
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