Brief History of Databases

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Brief History Of Databases

In the 1960's, the use of main frame computers became widespread in many companies. To access vast amounts of stored information, these companies started to use computer programs like COBOL and FORTRAN. Data accessibility and data sharing soon became an important feature because of the large amount of information required

by different departments within certain companies. With
this system, each application owns its own data files. The problems thus associated with this type of file processing was uncontrolled redundancy, inconsistent data, inflexibility, poor enforcement of standards, and low programmer maintenance.

In 1964, MIS (Management Information Systems) was introduced. This would prove to be very influential towards future designs of computer systems and the methods they will use in manipulating data.

In 1966, Philip Kotler had the first description of how managers could benefit from the powerful capabilities of the electronic computer as a management tool.
In 1969, Berson developed a marketing information system for marketing research. In 1970, the Montgomery urban model was developed stressing the quantitative aspect of management by highlighting a data bank, a model bank, and a measurement statistics bank. All of these factors will be influential on future models of storing data in a pool. According to Martine, in 1981, a database is a shared collection of interrelated data designed to meet the needs of multiple types of end users. The data is stored in one location so that they are independent of the programs that use them, keeping in mind data integrity with respect to the approaches to adding new data, modifying data, and retrieving existing data. A database is shared and perceived differently by multiple users. This leads to the arrival of Database Management Systems.

These systems first appeared around the 1970=s as solutions to problems associated with mainframe computers. Originally, pre-database programs accessed their own data files. Consequently, similar data had to be stored in other areas where that certain piece of information was relevant. Simple things like addresses were stored in customer information files, accounts receivable records, and so on. This created redundancy and inefficiency. Updating files, like storing files, was also a problem. When a customer=s address changed, all the fields where that customer=s address was stored had to be changed. If a field happened to be missed, then an inconsistency was created. When requests to develop new ways to manipulate and summarize data arose, it only added to the problem of having files attached to specific applications. New system design had to be done, including new programs and new data file storage methods. The close connection between data files and programs sent the costs for storage and maintenance soaring. This combined with an inflexible method of the kinds of data that could be extracted, arose the need to design an effective and efficient system.

Here is where Database Management Systems helped restore order to a system of inefficiency. Instead of having separate files for each program, one single collection of information was kept, a database. Now, many programs, known as a database manager, could access one database with the confidence of knowing that it is accessing up to date and exclusive information.

Some early DBMS=s consisted of:
Condor 3 dBaseIII Knowledgeman Omnifile Please Power-Base R-Base 4000 Condor 3, dBaseIII, and Omnifile will be examined more closely.

Condor 3
Is a relational database management system that evolved in the microcomputer environment since 1977. Condor provides multi-file, menu-driven relational capabilities and a flexible command language. By using a word processor, due to the absence of a text editor, frequently used commands can automated.

Condor 3 is an application development tool for multiple-file databases....
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