School of Health Professions
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant cells (cancer) form in the tissues of the breast (Hail, 2011). It is considered a heterogeneous disease – differing by individual, age group, and even kinds of cells within the tumors themselves (Hail, 2011). There are several types of breast carcinomas including Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Invasive Lobular Carcinoma, and Male Breast Cancer (Yi-Bin & David, 2011). Some methods used to diagnose breast carcinoma are mammograms, MRI’s, and biopsies (NCI, 2010). A staging system is standardized way for the cancer care team to summarize information about how far a cancer has spread (ACS, 2012). The most common system used to describe the stages of breast cancer is the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM system (ACS, 2012). Each stage has different prognoses with varying survival rates as well (Marissa, 2011). There are also many ways to prevent breast cancer including maintain a healthy weight, avoiding the alcohol consumption, and by getting an annual mammogram (Reynolds, 2010). A genetic mutation that raises the risk of breast cancer is found in up to 60 percent of U.S. women, making it the first truly common breast cancer susceptibility gene (Metcalf & Metcalf, 2008). Other breast diseases besides breast cancer are breast fat necrosis and fibrocystic breast disease (Sacks, 2011; Silverman, 1994). These diseases do not necessarily lead to breast cancer and can be treated (Sacks, 2011; Silverman, 1994). Keywords: - breast cancer, ducts, lobules, tumor, invasive (infiltrating carcinoma), noninvasive (noninfiltrating carcinoma), Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS), Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC), intraductal carcinoma, nonfunctioning breast tissue, estrogen, lymph nodes, mammogram, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), core biopsy, somatic mutations, fine needle aspiration biopsy, stereotactic biopsy, FGFR2, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, PTEN, STK11, AR, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, DIRAS3, ERBB2, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, metastasis, fat necrosis, fibrocystic breast disease Breast Cancer
Cells are the building blocks of living things and cancer grows out of normal cells in the body (Dugdale, 2010). Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body (Dugdale, 2010). Cancer harms the body when damaged cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors (except in the case of leukemia where cancer doesn’t allow normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream (Peter, 2011). Normal cells in the body follow an orderly process of growth, division, and death, this is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form (Peter, 2011). Cancer has been around since prehistoric times, and breast cancer is one of the earliest forms to have been mentioned (Eisenpreis, 1999). In the United States, breast cancer death rates are higher than those for any other cancer, besides lung cancer (breastcancer.org, 2012). Today, about 1 in 8 women (12%) will develop breast cancer in her lifetime (Martin, 2012).Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast (Yi-Bin & David, 2011). In rare cases, breast cancer can start in other areas of the breast (Yi-Bin & David, 2011). Breast cancer can be invasive or noninvasive (Yi-Bin & David, 2011). Invasive meaning it has spread from the milk duct (lobule) to the other tissues in the breast (Eisenpreis, 1999). Noninvasive means that it has not yet invaded other breast tissue (Yi-Bin & David, 2011). Types of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer can begin in different areas of the breast – the ducts, the lobules, or sometimes, the tissue in between (breastcancer.org, 2012). There are several different types of breast cancer, including breast cancer in men (breastcancer.org, 2012). Some include Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Invasive Lobular Carcinoma, and Male Breast Cancer (breastcancer.org, 2012)....