Breakfast

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Breakfast Habits and Daily Performances of College Students
Roselynn Chai Rou Xin, Wong Mei Wei, Daniel Low Qien Wey, Gareth Kam Chee Hoong HELP College of Arts & Technology

Introduction
Background Information
What is breakfast? Breakfast is commonly known as the first meal of the day and it serves as the fuel and energy booster to our body as refreshment after our long fasting during sleep time. Breakfast has been described as the most important meal of the day, contributing substantially to daily nutrient intake and energy needs. In fact, the nutritional impact of breakfast appears to be very positive (Rogers, 1997) as brain functioning is sensitive to short-term changes in the availability of nutrient supplies (Pollitt, 1995). Although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight, breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight; breakfast as a part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children’s health and well-being (Rampersaud, 2005) and its quality is an important component in the complex interaction between lifestyle factors and mental health in early adolescence (O’Sullivan, 2009). Besides, breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance (Rampersaud, 2005) via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose (Benton, 1998). Breakfast have positive short-term effects on cognitive functioning and self-reported alertness in high school students; male students reported feeling more positive after consuming breakfast, compared with the fasting condition (Katharina, 2008). Despite the importance of breakfast consumption, the amounts of breakfast skipping in adolescence are increasing nowadays. With the reasons of dissatisfaction with their body shape and to have been on a diet to lose weight, females’ skipping at over three times the rate of males (Shaw, 1998). Shaw also reported that lack of time and not being hungry in the morning are the famous reasons among the adolescence that skipped breakfast. While the majority of the research available validates the fact that eating breakfast has positive result on health, behavior, and academic performance, there are some researchers who argue differently. In the study with adolescence (university students) (Smith, 1994) and the study with children 8 to 11 years of age from low socioeconomic backgrounds (Lopez, 1993) illustrate there are no negative effects on academic performance, vigilance and cognitive ability from skipping breakfast. Purpose of Study

The purpose of the present study was to find answers to the following questions: 1. How often do college students take their breakfast in a week? 2. What type of breakfast do the college students usually take? 3. What type of breakfast do the college students prefer? 4. Did their preference for breakfast choice affect their daily performance? 5. Is there a relationship between daily performance of college students and their breakfast habits? Method

Participants
The sample consisted of students in HELP College of Arts and Technology, a building which is located at Fraser Business Park, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 8 surveys were administrated by the researcher. Of the 8 surveys, 6 were completed by women and 2 were completed by men. The breakdown by student classification was as follows: 1 student from Foundation in Business (FIB), 2 students from American Degree Program (ADP), 1 student from Edith Cowan University (ECU), 2 students from Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, 1 student from (Hons) Mechanical Engineering while 1 student program was not stated. In terms of age, the sample consisted of 8 students in the range between 19-year old to 23 year-old. There are 2 students with the age of 19, 1 student with the age of 21, 2 students with the age of 22 and 2 students with the age of 23. Instrument

A survey entitled...
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