Totalitarianism in the 1930’s
Karl Marx's Theory of History and the Recovery of the Marxian Tradition: Science & Society 8-22-12
Pages. 42, 30-54, 235-239
Marx had predicted that under communism the state would wither away. The opposite occurred under the Stalin. He turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. In this form of government, a one-party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizen. You have already seen how Stalin purged political rivals and imposed central government control over industry and agriculture.
To ensure obedience, Stalin’s Communist party used secret police, censorship and terror. Huxley wrote Brave New World between World War I and World War II. The effects of the War, were became obvious. Huxley wrote about changes in the feeling of nationalism to Great Britain, and began to move toward more equality among the classes and between the sexes. During this time period between the Wars totalitarianism was apparent. Totalitarian figures appear in Brave New World as Huxley's characters. He uses names of socialist and totalitarian leaders and the name and personalities of most characters. Names such as Karl Marx(Bernard Marx), Lenin(Lenina Crowne), Fanny Kaplan(Fanny Crowne), Benito Mussolini(Benito Hoover), and Mustapha Kemal Ataturk(Mustapha Mond), as well as these leader's beliefs and passions emerge as Huxley's characters passions. For example Bernard Marx is a representative of Karl Marx, Bernard doesn’t meet the physical standard of the Alpha group and is thus an outcast. This outcast feeling causes Bernard to question the government and wants to change the system. Like Karl Marx, who created socialism, which led to communism. Bernard is conditioned to remain common and to not be an individual. This is what feared Huxley, who believed that Communism in Russia, Fascism in Italy and Nazi Germany would lead to the loss of individualism in society. The character Mustapha Mond...