Awareness of Brands and Slogans
Stephen K. Keiser
Marketers have focused the thrust of many promotional efforts on adolescents. Frequently, the objective of these promotional efforts is increased awareness of the brands otTered tor sale by the sponsor oithe promotional etTort. In order to assure maximum return for the marketers'efforts, it seems necessary to assess the degree to which the awareness objective is accomplished. In the case of adolescents, attention on awareness should be focused on two questions: 1. Are adolescents aware of the seller's brand or the slogans used to carry the brand message? Arecertainsegmentsofthe adolescent market more aware of brands and slogans than others? brands and slogans. In addition, the differences observed between adolescent awareness of different brands and slogans areexamined. as paint or butter, generally not used by adolescents. The manufacturers of several of these brands may wish to reevaluate their promotional objectives in regard to the adolescent market. These brands, such as Glidden. Villager, or Ansco, may be jeopardizing future sales by not emphasizing adolescent awareness of their brands. However, managerial judgment and experience must be used when evaluating the cost of securing brand awareness in the adolescent market and the expected long-run sales from such a market. Slogan Awareness. Respondents were asked to complete the ten slogans shown in Table 2. The results of this measure were used as an indication of slogan awareness. As mentioned before for brands, slogans were chosen which covered different types of products and expected degrees of familiarity among adolescents. The range of sample proportion correctly completing the slogan (29 to 88 per cent)
A questionnaire was constructed to measure the criterion variables of brand and slogan awareness and several predictor variables (age, income, sex. social class, mass media exposure, and opinion leadership.) Measurement of Brand Awareness. Brand awareness was assessed by asking respondents to identify 20 brand names. For example, respondents were asked to furnish the type of product which is identified with the brand name UltraBrite. As shown in Table 1, 98 per cent of the respondents correctly identified Ultra-Brite as a brand of toothpaste. The wide variation in adolescent awareness of the examined brands reflects the range of brands chosen. Brands representing different types of products were selected, including several products, such
In order to provide answers to these two questions, a questionnaire was designed and a study was conducted among a random sample of Columbus. Ohio, high school students. The results of this study provide the basis for the design of a profile of adolescents who are most aware of
Joumai of Advertising Research suggested that the slogans chosen had different degrees of familiarity among adolescents. Respondent misidentification of several slogans implied that some current efforts ot marketers may be more beneficial to competitors than themselves. Some respondents tended to connect the wrong company or brand with a slogan. The "Fire yours, hire ours," "Choosey mothers choose ," and "Join the unhooked generation" slogans were most plagued by this problem. Approximately one of every five respondents connected each of these slogans with the brand of a competitor. Reevaluation of the promotional programs of these advertisers may be in order, assuming that slogan awareness of adolescents is an objective of their promotion campaign. Measurementof Predictor Variables. It was hypothesized that brand and slogan awareness are a function of (1) age. (2) income. (3) sex. (4) social class, (5) exposure to mass media, and (6) opinion leadership. Sex, Age, and Adolescent Income. The measurement of the first three of these six predictor variables was relatively straightforward ....