The Legislative Branch
The first article of the Constitution states that there shall be a bicameral legislature containing two separate legislative bodies: a House of Representatives and a Senate, called Congress. The two bodies of Congress work together to write, debate, and pass bills, which are then passed on to the President for approval.
There are 100 senators and 435 representatives. Each state has two senators, whereas a state's population determines the number of representatives. Each member represents an area of the state called a congressional district, and the number of representatives is based on the number of districts a state has. Densely populated states, like New York, would have more representatives than a sparsely populated state, such as Montana.
The Senate: The Upper House
The citizens of the United States elect our senators, although it hasn't always been that way. Before the 17th Amendment was passed, each state's legislature would elect them. Also, not just anyone is able to run for the Senate. There are certain qualifications a senator must have. They must be 30 years of age, have been a citizen of the United States for at least nine years, and must reside in the state they seek to represent. A senator is elected for a six-year term, and there is no limit on the number of times a person may be elected.
The Senate has specified powers named by the Constitution; it serves as the judge and jury of impeachment trials, appoints certain officials, and has the power to approve treaties made by the executive government, among others. The Senate and the House must agree on all of the bills passed, and is done so during certain conference committees.
The House of Representatives
This house of Congress is known as the lower house. The qualifications to be a representative are more relaxed than those to be a senator. A representative must be 25 years old, must have been a citizen of the United States for at least seven years, and must also reside in the state in which they represent. A representative is not required to live in the district they represent, but some state laws require this.
The Senate has specific powers, and so does the House. The House has the power to
Although Congress has numerous responsibilities and powers under the Constitution, its chief function is to make laws. The legislative process can be quite complicated. A proposed law, or bill, must pass through a series of steps before it is voted upon on the House and Senate floors. At any one of these steps, a bill can be delayed, defeated, or amended (changed). Most bills that are introduced do not survive this process and do not become law.
Suppose you had fifteen minutes to describe the ten most important features of the U.S. Congress - could you do it? Don't worry, help is close by.
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