A number of factors influence the brain structures and functions associated with the motivation to refrain from using drugs. The dynamics involved include intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, heredity, and environmental forces. In general, internal motivation is considered to be associated with long-term behavior modification, whereas the successful outcome of external motivation can be short lived (Pubs.niaaa.nih, 2010).Motivational assessment suggests a considerable challenge. To bring about a transformation of behavior, one must consider the individual’s internal point of view and beliefs, as well as his or her external forces and inducements. Although environmental and biological factors play a role in the desire to refrain from using drugs, the structures and functions of the brain related to motivation play an enormous role in one’s ability to do so; therefore, the approach must be multidimensional, with regard to these factors
Brain Structures and Functions
New insights into the structures of the brain and their functions that reinforce the chronic use of drugs in those who wish to refrain from using have been provided by imaging studies that’s how the role of dopamine (DA) in addiction . Theses studies provide evidence of not only the reinforcing effects of DA in the forebrain, “in front of and around the thalamus in each cerebral hemisphere [and] the afferent part of the basal ganglia mainly involved in movement planning and control and habit” (Striatum, 2009,para. 1), but also in the proportion of DA being distributed to the nucleus accumbens (Nucleusaccumbens, 2009), either of the two masses of opiate receptors and neural bodies in the vicinity of the septum pellucidum. This is a dopamine channel that is implicated in reinforcement and reward, and is believed to be involved in nearly all addictions. The more rapid the increase of DA, the higher the intensity and effects of reinforcement (Volkow, et al, 2007). In addition, high levels of DA... [continues]
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