Brain Drain

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Brain Drain — Presentation Transcript
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2. INTRODUCTION : A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals ("human capital") to other nations or jurisdictions. Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study abroad and complete their education do not return to their home country, or when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunities. •3. HISTORY OF BRAIN DRAIN : Historically, the greatest brain drains have been from rural to urban areas. In the 19th century and 20th century there were notable emigrations to North America from Europe , and in modern times, from developing nations to developed nations , especially after colonialism. Sometimes such drains have occurred between developed countries. •4. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAIN DRAIN :- There are numerous flows of skilled and trained persons from developing to developed countries. In these flows engineers, medical personnel and scientists usually tend to predominate. They are characterized by large flows from a comparatively small number of developed countries and by small flows from a larger number of developing countries. The migratory trends are stimulated both by the character of national educational systems by lack and inadequate planning for the training of students from developing countries, in developed states as well as the proper utilization of their-skills in their home country etc. •5. CONCEPT & MAGNITUDE OF BRAIN DRAIN :- Migration of people as a phenomenon differs from country to country and from time to time. Migration of HQM from LDCs may be due to several different sets of underlying social, political and economic forces. The phenomenon of migration of high quality manpower can justify the use of the expression on the term “brain drain”. Brain drain represents the defacto transfer of resources spent on imparting education and nurturing technical skills of the drained brain in question by the parent country (DCs) to the country of the transfer. The main crux of the matter is that emigrants as they enter developed countries are often in the most productive phase of his professional life and by the time they returns back . •6. MAJOR PROBLEMS FACED BY INDIA DUE TO BRAIN DRAIN :- A shortage of skilled and competent people in India. A tremendous increase in wages of high-skill labors in India . Problems for the public sector : With the exception of ICICI, none of the public sector finance companies have done a serious job of revamping their pay scales. They face two alternatives: a sharp increase in wages of high-skill labors, or bankruptcy. Problems of governance : In government itself, low wages at senior levels are a serious problem. An economic advisor at the Finance Ministry earns less than Rs.20,000 a month. It is possible to have individuals take up these roles if they are independently wealthy; altruistic; power-hungry; corrupt or incompetent. This is not a happy state of affairs etc. •7. WHAT WE CAN DO ??? We need to take higher education more seriously. The conventional wisdom states that India has an excellent system of higher education, and needs to do more on elementary education. We are used to feeling proud about five good IITs. But five good IITs do not add up to a system of higher education. The drop-off in quality in even the next ten universities is simply frightening. Ironically, one of the biggest hurdles in obtaining a sensible system of higher education is low wages in academics. •8. India’s million-strong brain drain represents just 4.3% of its vast graduate population. FACT :- •9. PUSH FACTORS OF BRAIN DRAIN :- Under employment. Economic under development. Low wage/salary. political instability. Over production and under utilization or HQM. Lack of research and other facilities. Lack of freedom. Discrimination in appointment and promotion. Poor working facilities. Lack of scientific tradition and culture. Unsuitable...
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