The oldest question in economics is why some countries are rich while others are poor. Economic theory has emphasized that differences in the educational levels of the population are an important part of the answer and that improved schooling opportunities should raise incomes in developing countries. Yet, while there is little doubt that highly educated workers in many developing countries are scarce, it is also true that many scientists, engineers, physicians, and other professionals from developing countries work in Canada, the United States, and Western Europe. This phenomenon, often referred to as the "brain drain," was noticed as early as the 1960s and has been a contentious issue in the North-South debate ever since. One important implication of the brain drain is that investment in education in a developing country may not lead to faster economic growth if a large number of its highly educated people leave the country. Also, efforts to reduce specific skill shortages through improved educational opportunities may be largely futile unless measures are taken to offset existing incentives for highly educated people to emigrate. Brain Drain or otherwise known as Human Capital Flight is the emigration of trained and skilled individuals to other nations or jurisdictions, due to conflicts, lack of opportunity, health hazards where they are living or for some other reasons. The term “Brain Drain” has gained wide usage in the year 1960s when growth of migration of skilled personnel from developing countries to developed countries accelerated. Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study abroad and complete their education do not return to their home country, or when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunities. The second form is arguably worse, because it drains more resources from the home country. This phenomenon is perhaps most problematic for developing nations, where it is widespread. In these countries, higher education and professional certification are often viewed as the surest path to escape from a troubled economy or confused political situation.
2. DEFINITION OF “BRAIN DRAIN”:
A slang term for a significant emigration of educated or talented individuals. A brain drain can result from turmoil within a nation, from there being better professional opportunities in other countries or from people seeking a better standard of living. Brain drain may be defined as emigration, especially from developing and underdeveloped countries to developed ones, by intellectuals, experts, highly qualified professionals like scientists, engineers, doctors, economists and other technically trained persons. It means depletion of intellectual, professional and technical resources of one country and enrichment of another. Almost all the developing and underdeveloped nations have been suffering from this problem since long. India is no exception. The problem is really very serious and must be addressed immediately. Thousands of Indian scientists; doctors, engineers and other highly qualified and trained persons have been immigrating to the advanced and developing countries of Europe and America. The departure of these highly talented and trained people, forming the intellectual backbone of the nation, has a detrimental effect on the economic, technical, scientific and mental health of the country. “Brain drain” is the phenomena whereby nations lose skilled labor because there are better paid jobs elsewhere. In recent years, this has affected poorer countries more so, as some rich countries tempt workers away, and workers look to escape bleak situations in their poor home countries.
3. What is brain drain?
Brain drain is also known as “The Human Capital Flight”. It can be simply defined as the mass emigration of technically skilled people from one country to one another country. Brain Drain can have many reasons, for example-political...