Brain Damage

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Essay Title: What does the study of brain injury and disease tell us about normal brain functioning?

Word count (Excluding title and references section): 829
What does the study of brain injury and disease tell us about normal brain functioning?

To understand atypical brain function, it is important to distinguish the expectations for a typical brain function. It is true that many diseases or injuries result in impairments in cognition; as different areas of the brain is designed to control specific cognition and processes. For example the hemispheres are known to control different functions such as language, spatial judgements, reasoning and abstract notions (Martin, 2003). Whilst, the frontal lobe is famous for processing memory, attention, personality, and behaviour (Martin, 2003). Parietal lobe tends to control spatial and sensory information; whereas occipital lobe processes visual stimulus. Language, retrieval of memory and behaviour is administrated through temporal lobe (Martin, 2003). Finally, the limbic system tends to control emotion as well as short term memory (Martin, 2003).

Brain damage is the degeneration or abnormal growth of brain cells, which can be the result of outer (injury) or inner (disease) influences. Therefore, in cases of brain disease there are biological and psychological impairment that causes abnormality in the brain such as Alzheimer’s disease, Dementia, Amnesia and Aphasia; which some may be genetically inherited.

Brain disease such as Alzheimer’s help us to understand the processes of the central executive function, which assists in producing controlled and flexible responses (Groome, 2006). In Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), this process is replaced by automatic and stereotyped responses; thus, it results in a dysexecutive syndrome (Groome, 2006; Baddely & Wilson, 1988). Conditions such as AD, symptoms like amnesia and dementia are known to involve damage to...
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