Brain Computer Interface

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BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
Kumaresh M, mkumaresh14@gmail.com, 9445637950
Vijayaprabhuvel R, vijayaprabhuvel@gmail.com, 9940505985

Abstract
We live at a time when the disabled are
on the leading edge of a broader societal
trend towards the use of assistive
technology known as Brain Computer
Interface. Brain-computer interface
(BCI) is a collaboration between a brain
and a device that enables signals from
the brain to direct some external activity,
such as control of robotic machine and
video game screen. The interface enables
a direct communication pathway
between the brain and the object to be
controlled. With the advent of miniature
wireless tech, electronic gadgets have
stepped up the invasion of the body
through innovative techniques. This
paper deals with the advancements in the
Brain Computer Interface (BCI)
technology. Our project features
replacing the conventional wet sensor
electrodes which results in poor signal
quality, faulty operation and gel
evaporation by the hybrid dry electrode
sensor. It is also developed to solve
some issues thereby implementing the
BCI technology using tabloids, palmtops
or i-pads instead of using massive wired
PC’s. This module deals with as to how
this mechanism is supported by the brain
and later sections describes its
applications, current research on this
technique, real life examples and
concluding it with its advantages over
the prevailing one.
Introduction
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)
provides a new communication channel

between the human brain and the
computer.The 100 billion neurons
communicate via minute electrochemical
impulses, shifting patterns sparking like
fireflies on a summer evening, that
produce movement, expression, words.
Mental activity leads to changes of
electrophysiological signals. The BCI
system detects such changes and
transforms it into a control signal . In
the case of cursor control, for example,
the signal is transmitted directly from the
brain to the mechanism directing the
cursor, rather than taking the normal
route through the body's neuromuscular
system from the brain to the finger on a
mouse. By reading signals from an array
of neurons and using computer chips and
programs to translate the signals into
action, BCI can enable a person
suffering from paralysis to write a book
or control a motorized wheelchair or
prosthetic limb through thought alone
Many physiological disorders such as
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or
injuries such as high-level spinal cord
injury can disrupt the communication
path between the brain and the body.
This is where brain computer interface
comes into play contributing for
beneficial real time services and
applications .
What is Brain Computer Interface
The reason a BCI works at all is because
of the way our brains function. Our
brains are filled with neurons,
individual nerve cells connected to one
another by dendrites and axons. Every

time we think, move, feel or remember
something, our neurons are at work. That
work is carried out by small electric
signals that zip from neuron to neuron as
fast as 250 mph. The signals are
generated by differences in electric
potential carried by ions on the
membrane of each neuron. Although the
paths the signals take are insulated by
something called myelin, some of the
electric signal escapes. Scientists can
detect those signals, interpret what they
mean and use them to direct a device of
some kind. It can also work the other
way around. For example, researchers
could figure out what signals are sent to
the brain by the optic nerve when
someone sees the color red. They could
rig a camera that would send those exact
signals into someone's brain whenever
the camera saw red, allowing a blind
person to "see" without eyes.

Fig1.How Brain Computer Interface

Cortical Plasticity
The brain actually remains flexible even
into old age. This concept, known as
cortical...
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