Concepts of State and Government
State – is a community of persons more or less numerous permanently occupying a definite portion of territory and a government. Elements of State
1. People – this refers to the mass of population living within the state. 2. Territory – it includes not only the land over which the jurisdiction of the state extends; but also the rivers and lakes therein. 116 square miles or 300,440 square kilometers 3. Government – it refers to the agency through which the will of the state is formulated expressed and carried out. 4. Sovereignty – the term may be defined as the supreme power of the state to command and enforce obedience to its will from people within its jurisdiction. a) Internal – or the power of the state to rule within its territory b) External – or the freedom of the state to carry out its activities without subjection to or control by other states. Origin of state theories
1. Divine Right Theory – it holds that the state is of divine creation and the ruler is ordained by god to govern the people. 2. Necessity or Force Theory – it maintains that state must have been created through force. 3. Paternalistic Policy – it attributes the origin of states to the enlargement of the family which remained under the authority of the father or mother. 4. Social Contract Theory – it asserts that the early states must have been formed by deliberate and voluntary compact among the people to form society and organize government for their common good. Forms of Government
a) Monarchy – or one in which the supreme and final authority is in the hands of a single person without regard to the source of this election or the nature or duration of his tenure. Monarchies are further classified into 1. Absolute monarchy – or one in which the ruler rules by divine right 2. Limited Monarchy – or one in which the ruler rules in accordance with a constitution. b) Aristocracy – or one in which political...
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