Bottom of the Pyramid

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By Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fischer

Marketing Mix (4P): Putting the right product in the right place, at the right price, at the right time.

把適合的產品用在對的地方,在合適的價格, 在恰當的時間

林清弘 601551400





目的: 企業需要重新考慮傳統行銷4P組合的 應用,在金字塔底端(最大最窮的社會經濟 群體),因為有不同存在的變數而影響到企 業和消費者之間的互動. 價值 – 本論文擴展金字塔底端的相對較新 的研究議程。研究原本專注在亞洲和拉丁 美洲的學術焦點領域, 而擴展到非洲的金字 塔底端市場.



Introduction:
 重點在企業營銷,但全球化導致傳統MNC商業模式為爭論焦點

(additional area to focus on BOP)
▪ 面臨的挑戰不專注在服務BOP消費者,而是如何讓美化觀念去適應當地的需求 (note: BOP is not homogenous entity) ▪ (local & international) 企業需要學會適應BOP市場, 推動有效策略(Austin, 1990)

 BOP屬性: 低齡人口, 性別歧視, 農村和城市的性質, 住宅大小, 不確

定性, 環境中的衝突, 基礎設施的充足性, 非正規經濟處境範圍 (Mahajan and Banga, 2005) ▪ 變化受到的影響偏大, 但影響力小 ▪ Thus, additional report: big BOP 市場= most difficult market to do business in

 


經濟體的性質, 個人財務, 政策, 政府管制 文化觀念, 與外人交流, 大自然的限制 (資源, 災難) (IMO) Financial is directly affected by the governance esp more in third world countries with less opportunities , there can be financially liberated or repressed depending on the governance



BOP can be in emerging countries, especially more concentration in developed countries (Loayza et al., 2007; Ndulu et al., 2007; Raddatz, 2007) 

Companies that develop strategies with the unique account (not constraints), with no stereotypes, likely to succeed in find BOP consumers in emerging markets (Khanna et al., 2005)  BUT, international business has bias with BOP people due to limited social, constrained knowledge, = can’t find full opportunity BOP market offers = EVIDENT in Africa BOP (Lack info on key consumer behavior, and how firms can develop and implement marketing strategies to enter BOP segment)



Zimbabwe: Why a primary BOP research example? It holds subjected to policy and natural induced risks, such as social conflict, political instability, and economic mismanagement (Ersado, 2006; United Nations Development Programme, 2008) 80% living under $1 a day (Consumer Council of Zimbabwe, 2007; UNDP 2008), while GDP big declines 85% unemployment with world’s highest inflation rate (Coorey et al., 2008; Hank, 2008)  



Challenges to improve: Transport, electricity, roads, water, telecommunications (Fay and Morrison, 2005; Fay and Yepes, 2003) These challenges are the key indicators to determine firm’s interactions with consumers, This is why Zimbabwe is ideal BOP, to help insight better on interacting with consumers in other BOP market This research relates to Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) marketing mix strategies that effectively respond to BOP consumer needs and Macro-environmental challenges



Purpose (Hypothesis) of this Paper: To investigate the marketing mix challenges firms face at BOP and whether 4P model is good enough to support firms. 

Focus on what adaptations need for circumstances at BOP  Because traditional marketing mix approach is not enough (decision-making) where (interactions between firms and consumers) Is needed




重視在現實主義範圍科學範例內的理論建 設, 利用個案的研究層面的定性數據資源 研究Outline:  Figure 1  文獻探討 Literature Review

 深度訪談探索 Exploratory In-Depth Interview  消費者和企業之間互動的理論研究框架發展

Theoretical Research Framework Development in Consumer & Firm interactions

Step 1. 文獻探討: • 行銷概念的進化:在美國市場的應用 • BOP中4P的運用 Step 2. 深度訪談探索: • 在三間公司內執行六個基於”食品及個人衛生部份”的深度訪談並建立 他們和BOP之間的互動本性 • 訪談給的貢獻是實證的證據和訊息, 能補充發表的文獻 Step 3. 理論架構: • 根據1 跟 2 的結果建立一個架構 Step 4. 研究提議 • 從架構裡找出提議 Step 5. 確認研究命題 (是否能運用在1跟2上) • 依關於企業與消費者互動的四個深度案例研究調查來回答 • 在消費者跟企業裡的行銷專員的人種學觀察(主觀而不用統計做調查) 架構提案





背景: James Culliton 推用 傳統”市場營銷組合策略” (1948), Borden 採用 (1940-1950年中) McCarthy 總結成4P model (Product, Price, Promotion, Place), 發現到4P可當成已開發國家中消費者的行銷管理的工具 (consumers in developed countries) 有些作家批評4P Model有些限制 (兩種問題) 1. 消費者假設列為成被動性, 被企業操作, 而勿略之間的互動 2. 研究概念來自個人主義, 沒有考慮到高度的集體環境 (BOP通常會發生) (Hofstede dimension的概念)  這兩項影響到服務上的困難跟人際關係



There are extended versions of the 4P model to fix the limitations of the original 

7P (+ Personnel, Process, and Physical Facilities)  But many...
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