Bottling of Biogas

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A REPORT ON

“UPGRADING BIOGAS BY REMOVAL OF CARBON DIOXIDE
FOR USE AS A DOMESTIC FUEL”

By

R.Mani Sravani2010A1PS512G
Avi Agarwal2010A1PS515G

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, PILANI- K.K.BIRLA GOA CAMPUS DECEMBER 2012
REPORT ON

“UPGRADING BIOGAS BY REMOVAL OF CARBON DIOXIDE
FOR USE AS A DOMESTIC FUEL”

By

R.Mani Sravani2010A1PS512G
Avi Agarwal2010A1PS515G

Prepared in fulfillment of
Lab Oriented Project Course (BITS GC 313 )

Under the supervision of Dr.K.N.Ponnani
Department of Chemical Engineering

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, PILANI- K.K.BIRLA GOA CAMPUS DECEMBER 2012

ABSTRACT

This report explains all the viable technologies and methods to upgrade a biogas feed to a certain level of purity to compress, store and use as a domestic fuel. The increase in purity also lends itself to increasing the energy producing capability of the fuel.

The report starts off by considering membrane separation technology for the purpose of purification. With economic and feasibility objectives in mind, water absorption is decided upon as the most beneficial technology.

The conditions are then simulated in chemcad to get the ideal parameters for the process.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are very much grateful to Dr.K.N.Ponnani, consultant and R & D of chemical engineering department, Bits Pilani K K Birla campus for giving us an opportunity to work under him and get guidance and knowledge throughout the project.

I extend my sincere to Deepak Ojha, instructor who helped us with chemcad for our simulations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(i)Abstract

(ii)Acknowledgements

1. Introduction
2. Need for upgrading and refining biogas
3. Upgrading techniques
(a) Water Scrubbing
(b) Pressure Swing Absorption
(c) Membrane Separation
(d) Cryogenic Separation
4. Vapour Liquid Equilibrium
5. Simulation Parameters
6. Observations
7. Conclusion

(iii) References

INTRODUCTION

The current use of fossil fuels is rapidly depleting the natural reserves. The natural formation of coal and oil however is a very slow process which takes ages. Therefore, a lot of research effort is put into finding renewable fuels nowadays to replace fossil fuels. Renewable fuels are in balance with the environment and contribute to a far lesser extent to the greenhouse effect.

The world is undergoing a shortage in the availability of carbon fuels. Hence, biofuels are being considered as alternative sources at a small scale, as they are essentially sources of recycled carbon. One of the most prominent of the alternative sources is biogas. Biogas is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and other gases, formed from aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of biomass.

In nature the fermentation process occurs in places where biological material is fermented in an oxygen deprived environment such as swamps and waterbeds. The two main sources of biogas from human activities are domestic garbage landfills and fermentation of manure and raw sewage.

Presently, the biomass sources contribute 14% of global energy and 38% of energy in developing countries. Globally, the energy content of biomass residues in agriculture based industries annually is estimated at 56 exajoules, nearly a quarter of global primary energy use of 230 exajoules.

Biomass contributes over a third of primary energy in India. Biomass fuels are predominantly used in rural households for cooking and water heating, as well as by traditional and artisan industries. Biomass delivers most energy for the domestic use (rural - 90% and urban - 40%) in India.

Composition and properties of biogas
Biogas is a mixture of gases that is composed chiefly of:
* methane (CH4): 60-70 vol.%
* carbon dioxide (CO2): 30-40 vol.%
* other gases: 1-5 vol.%
including
* hydrogen (H2): 0-1 vol.%
* hydrogen sulfide (H2S): 0-3 vol.%
Heat capacity of biogas--
Methane...
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