1. Diet has always played a vital role in supporting health. As a result, improper nutrition can put us at risk of becoming malnourished. Define the term malnutrition.
Malnutrition means an incorrect or unbalanced intake of nutrients e.g. obesity, kwashiorkor…
……any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients.
2a. Complete the following table:
Food groups| Main nutrients | Two food examples|
Staples| Carbohydrate| Honey, chocolate, ice-cream, sweets, banana, beet, macaroni, ground provision, bread… | Fats & oils| Fats | Meat, egg yolk, oily fish, avocado pear, peanut, Soya, sesame oil, fish liver oils, milk and milk products e.g. cheese.| Food from animals| Proteins| Meat, cheese, fish, milk, eggs, yogurt, sardine, sausage, etc.| Legumes | Proteins| pulses i.e. peas and beans, nuts, seeds| Vegetables| Vitamins, Minerals, Water | Patchoi, lettuce, cucumber, carrots, cauliflower, broccoli, etcMango, cherry, plum, apple, orange, lime, melon, guava, etc.hard water, soft water, fruits, vegetables, juices, tap and bottle water | Fruits| Vitamins, Minerals, Water | |
State two functions of:
a. Metabolism: the complex metabolism of the body requires a source of energy. b. Provides energy
c. Acts as a protein sparer so that protein can be used for its primary functions. d. Stimulates the digestive tract(roughage)
a. Vital to the growth, repair and maintenance of the body. b. Can also be used to provide the body with energy.
c. Growth and tissue repairs especially for children, expectants, nursing mothers and invalids
a. Provide convenient and concentrated source of energy. b. Surrounds and protects certain vital organs e.g. kidney, brain, glands, heart c. Forms adipose tissue to help preserve body heat and protect skeleton and organs. d. Provide texture and flavor in food and help to make it palatable e.g. bread. e. Food containing fat provides a feeling of fullness (satiety) after a meal, since fat digestion is slow (high satiety value)
3a. The chronic diseases diabetes, ranks among the top ten leading causes of death in the United States. It is also prevalent here in the Caribbean. Give a definition for Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus is a constant excess of glucose from digested food in the blood.
3b. Name three types of diabetes: * Type 1 Diabetes - ‘insulin dependent diabetes’ (IDDM) or Juvenile Onset Diabetes * Type 11 Diabetes – ‘non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus’ (NIDDM) or Adult Onset Diabetes * Gestational Diabetes- diabetes developed in women during pregnancy
4a. Define the term hypertension. Describe steps that can be taken to lower blood pressure. Hypertension is a condition which occurs when a person’s blood pressure rises beyond certain accepted levels and remains consistently high. Or
High blood pressure is a higher-than-normal blood pressure.
4b. Steps that can be taken to lower blood pressure
a. Reduce salt/sodium in the diet to a maximum, of 6 grams or a teaspoon per day from all sources b. Polyunsaturated fats (mostly from plant sources and fish) as well as fish oil can be included in the diet as these tend to lower blood pressure. c. Plan meals using foods that are high fiber and foods which are rich in potassium i.e. fruits & vegetables, as these tend to lower blood pressure. d. Cut down on excess calories; eat less fatty meat and animal fat. e. Avoid alcohol. If you must, no more than 1-2 drink daily f. Physical activity helps in weight control, but moderate aerobic...