Botany-Fungi

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THALLUS ORGANIZATION

Unicellular Habit
Motile form-with flagella
Ex.Euglena
Non-motile form-w/o flagella
Ex.Gloeocapsa

Colonial Habit
Indeterminate- unlimited aggregates of cell division
Determinate-aka Coenobium, division is at a fixed rate

Filamentous Habit
Simple unbranched –cells are capable of cell division, growth,and reproduction Branched-cell division and growth are restricted to the end cells (Cladophora). Growth due to cell division of meristem is called Trichothallic growth (Ectocarpus). Heterotrichous-highly developed. Consist of prostate and erect system of branched filaments. Ex. Ectocarpus

Siphoneous Habit
Coenocytic and lack septa. Septa formed during formation of reproductive organs. Ex. Vaucheria

Pseudoparenchymatous and Parenchymatous Habit

Pseudoparenchymatous thalli-derived from juxtaposition of branch system of single axial thread Parenchymatous habit-derived from filamentous one as a result of cell division taking place in more than one plane

Phycology –study of algea
Algae Characteristics
Thallophytes
Lack protective jacket of sterile cells
Lack vascular tissues
Lack embryo life stage
Gametangia-gametes housed in specialized containers
Flagella
Acronematic
Stichonematic
Pantonematic-3 or more rows, w/mastigonemes
Habitat-ubiquitous
Algal Zonation-related to algal pigmentation
Maintenance culture-algae in containers
Enrichment culture-specialized media for faster propagation
Unialgal culture-only 1 species of algae present though other microorganisms inside Axenic algal culture-single algal species only
Clonal culture-populations only from single individual

Photoautotropic-grow in inorganic molecules with presence of light Photoauxotropic-grow, needed vitamins
Heterotropic-not synthesize in inorganic compounds, needs some carbon compounds Phagotropic-digest solid partices

Reproduction
Vegetative propagation-fragmentation of the plant body
Hormogonia-the thing that is called when filaments breaks up into motile segments via fragmentation Agents of replication/Asexual reproduction
Zoospore-flagellate motile cells
Aplanospore- nonmotiles spore which are potentially motile
Hypnospore-Aplanospore with thick walls
Autospores-totally lacks potentiality to move
Four Phenomena In Sexual Reproduction
Plasmogamy-union of cells
Karyogamy-union of nuclei
Mingling of chromosomes bearing genomes
Meiosis
*in a nonmotile algae, special flagellate or amoeboid gametes are produced either by vegetative cells or specialized cells called gametangia Oogamy-dimorphism of sperm and egg (most advanced)
Heterogamy-gametes with differing sizes both flagellate or amoeboid Cyroflora-algae of frozen habitats
Thermophiles-algae of hot habitats

Blue-gree algea
absence of membrane bound plastids
no mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus
no vacuoles
DNA on nuclear membrane
Has photosynthetic lamellae
Pyrenoids
Center for enzymatic condensation of glucose and starch in brow, red and euglenoids In the chromatopore
Algal flagella fibril formation
9+2 fibril formation
Isokontan-equal flagella
Heterokontan-unequal flagella
Stigma-red eyespot in many algal motile cells
Phototaxis-movement of motile cells towards light
Water soluble carbohydrates (Wall materials)
Mannan
Xylan
Cellulose I
Alginic acid---brown algea (align)
Insoluble polysaccharides (Amorphous sheaths and matrices of flagella) Agar
Carrageenin
Gelan(red algae)
Ulvin, Pectin (green algae)
Fucoidin(brown algae)

Colonies-multicellular colonies resulting from failure of separation of cell division 2 Types of colonies
Indeterminate- unlimited aggregates of cell division
Determinate-aka coenobium, division is at a fixed rate
Filament-chain of cells in many algae
Simple
Branching – division in new direction
Heterotrichous- the plant body consists of two...
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