Borrowings in English

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The main period for the introduction of French words into English was after the Norman Conquest of 1066. For the next 300 or so years, the language of the royal court, and therefore of authority, was Norman, a variety of French. The ruling classes spoke what came to be known as Anglo-Norman, while the rest of the population - the peasantry - carried on speaking English. French quickly became the language of law and government. This carried on until about the end of the 14th century when English reasserted itself as the language of authority. But French had made its mark on English and many of its words remain in use in English today. •With the Normans in a position of power for so long in the British Isles it is no surprise that many English words relating to government, law, money, and warfare come from French. Here are just a few: attorney from the Old French atourné

fee from the original French word fie, 14th Century
finance from finer to end or settle by payment
guard from garde, 15th Century
inherit from Old French enheriter, 14th Century
jail from Old French jaiole (meaning cage), 13th Century
jury from Old French juree, originally from jurer (meaning to swear), 14th Century lieutenant from Old French, literally (meaning place-holding), 14th Century •Britain has often followed French tastes when it comes to cuisine, from the Norman Conquest in the 11th century to nouvelle cuisine of the 1980s. Below is a small selection of culinary words English has adopted from France: aperitif from French, from Medieval Latin aperitīvus, from Latin aperīre (meaning to open), 19th Century bacon from Old French bacon , from Old High German bahho, 12th Century beef from Old French boef, 13th Century

café from French: COFFEE, 19th Century
grape from Old French grape, 13th Century
juice from Old French jus, 13th Century
mackerel from Anglo-French, from Old French maquerel, 13th Century menu from French menu , meaning small, detailed (list), 19th Century nutmeg...
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