Borrowings

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Table of Content

|Introduction |3 | |Chapter I Ways and means of enriching the vocabulary |5 | |Productive word formation |5 | |Borrowing |9 | |Chapter II Classification of borrowings |13 | |2.1 Classification of borrowings according to the borrowed aspects |13 | |2.2 Classification of borrowings according to the degree of assimilation |14 | |2.3 Classification of borrowings according to the language form which they were borrowed | | |2.3.1 Romanic borrowing |17 | |2.3.2 Germanic borrowing |17 | |2.4 Etymological doublets |20 | | |22 | |Conclusion |24 | |List of literature |26 |

Introduction

There are two ways of enriching the vocabulary: A. vocabulary extension — the appearance of new lexical items. New vocabulary units appear mainly as a result of: 1. productive or patterned ways of word-formation; 2. non-patterned ways of word-creation; 3. borrowing from other languages. B. semantic extension — the appearance of new meanings of existing words which may result in homonyms. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. By contrast, a calque or loan translation is a related concept whereby it is the meaning or idiom that is borrowed rather than the lexical item itself. The word loanword is itself a calque of the German Lehnwort and/or the Dutch Leenwoord. Loanwords can also be called, "borrowings." Words which a language inherits from an ancestral language from which it develops are not borrowed words. Inherited words usually constitute most of the vocabulary of a language. Although loanwords are typically far fewer than the native words of most languages (creoles and pidgins being exceptions), they are often widely known and used, since their borrowing served a certain purpose, for example to provide a name for a new invention. Borrowing words from other languages is characteristic of English throughout its history. More than two thirds of the English vocabulary are borrowings. Mostly they are words of Romanic origin (Latin, French, Italian, Spanish). Borrowed words are different from native ones by their phonetic structure, by their morphological structure and also by their grammatical forms. It is also characterisitic of borrowings to be non- motivated semantically. English history is very rich in different types of contacts with other countries, that is why it is very rich in borrowings. The Roman...
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