Explain the influence of the Middle East in the tensions between the Allies during the ending of WWII and on the announcement of the Truman Doctrine that began the Cold War in 1947-1948.
For the United States the Middle East and the Mediterranean Sea, which Greece and Turkey bordered, were of great importance, as the Middle East had rich oil reserves and America and Britain, as the largest industrialized countries and exporters of goods at the time, wanted control of this vast cache of oil to secure their economies. Importantly, both nations did not want the Soviets to gain access to the oil reserves; however, Roosevelt had a concordant relationship with Stalin and thus included him in the Yalta conference. In 1945, FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met with the Shaw of Saudi Arabia, to gain oil rights and become sole developers of their oil reserves After the Yalta conference, FDR expanded his quest for more oil, meeting with the other two kings of the Middle East, Iran, and Egypt.
Upon FDR’s death, President Harry Truman disregarded FDR’s work with Stalin and initiated America’s containment of socialism, advancing the Truman Doctrine, an expansion of the Monroe Doctrine, which determined the geographic regions in which the United States would exercise power, secure access to the Middle East, and prevent socialism. Although Truman’s actions alienated Stalin, Truman boldly proposed control of all European waterways; “ the plan, he suggested, would also be a good model for the [Black Sea] Straits.” 2 By controlling the Straits, the United States would have absolute power over oil trade. At the end of the presentation of the Truman doctrine, Senator Walter George announced his opinion: “ … when we make policy of this kind we are irrevocably committing ourselves … no way to get out of it next week or next year.” 3In effect, the United States was committed to enforcing its arguments as stated in the doctrine.
Explain the differences 1. between the stated public...
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