A fracture is a complete or incomplete break in a bone resulting from the application of excessive force.
A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. They are injuries of bone tissue, which compromise their ability to support the body. It can be the result of high force impact or stress, or trivial injury as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, bone cancer, or osteogenesis imperfecta, where the fracture is then properly termed a pathologic fracture.
BONE FRACTURE PHYSIOLOGY
Bone tissue is structurally very hard, but when it is subjected to forces higher than its capacity it responds in two ways. When the forces are applied in one instant, like a sudden fall, it results in a bone fracture. But if it is applied slowly over a period of time, it results in remodeling of the bone to a shape that balances the forces e.g. bowing of legs in rickets. Thus, the bone has a dynamic nature and adjusts to the changing loads of weight bearing and physical stress. This ability of bones is due to the constant erosion of bone by osteoclasts and deposition of new bone by osteoblasts (Picture 1).
Picture 1: Bone Fracture Physiology
A delicate balance between these cells is responsible for thickening or thinning of bones, depending on the activity performed by a person. Hence, a manual laborer has a much sturdy skeleton than a sedentary working clerk in an office. Thus, after a bone fracture, the bones have an intrinsic ability to heal themselves due to the deposition of bone by osteoblasts. It also indicates that pressure acting on a particular bone tends to increase the thickness of the bone over time and helps better healing of bone fractures.
CAUSES OF BONE FRACTURES
Individuals with high activity levels appear to be at greater risk for fractures. This group includes children and athletes participating in contact... [continues]
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