Bondlab

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Bond
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INSTRUCTOR:

PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this experiment is to examine the properties of six common chemicals based upon their inherent molecular properties. Though this experiment, we can study and compare the bond properties of these chemicals. This experiment is also an introduction comparison of ionic and covalent bonding through real world testing. The properties of each type of bond will be exploited to the fullest during these tests.

MATERIALS
Materials required complete the lab:
* 6 Watch Glasses
* 2 g Calcium Chloride per parts A, B, C
* 2 g Citric Acid per parts A, B, C
* 2 g Phenyl Salicylate per parts A, B, C
* 2 g Potassium Iodide per parts A, B, C
* 2 g Sodium Chloride per parts A, B, C
* 2 g Sucrose per parts A, B, C
* 6 Bunsen Burners
* 6 Test Tubes with 25 ml Ethanol each
* 6 Test Tubes with 25 ml Water each
* 6 100 ml beakers with 50 ml Water each
* 10 g Calcium Chloride per parts D
* 10 g Citric Acid per parts D
* 10 g Phenyl Salicylate per parts D
* 10 g Potassium Iodide per parts D
* 10 g Sodium Chloride per parts D
* 10 g Sucrose per parts D
* 6 Conductivity Meters

METHOD
* Set up six watch glasses
* Add 2 g of each chemical to its own watch glass
* Set 1 Bunsen burner under each watch glass and observe the speed of the melting point. (Limit 2 minutes)
* Record the order of the chemicals as they reach their melting point * Clean up the work area
* Set up six Test tubes with 25 ml of ethanol
* Add 2 g of each chemical to its own Test tube
* Stir the mixture
* Record if the chemicals dissolve in the ethanol or not
* Clean up the work area
* Set up six Test tubes with 25 ml of Water
* Add 2 g of each chemical to its own Test tube
* Stir the mixture
* Record if the chemicals dissolve in the water or not
* Clean up the work area
* Set up six 100 ml beakers with 50 ml of Water
* Add 10 g of each chemical to its own beaker
* Add 1 conductivity meter to each beaker
* Record if the chemicals are conductive in water or not

Melting point

Ethanol Solubility

Water Solubility

Conductivity

DATA
Chemicals| Melting Point (In Order)| Solubility (Ethanol)| Solubility (Water)| Conductivity| Group| Bond Type| Calcium Chloride| None| Insoluble| Soluble| Yes| 2| Ionic| Citric Acid| 2nd| Soluble| Soluble| No| 1| Covalent| Phenyl Salicylate| 1st| Soluble| Insoluble| No| 1| Covalent| Potassium Iodide| None| Insoluble| Soluble| Yes| 2| Ionic| Sodium Chloride| None| Insoluble| Soluble| Yes| 2| Ionic| Sucrose| 3rd| Soluble| Soluble| No| 1| Covalent|

Results
The results from this experiment were interesting. When putting a variety of chemicals through different tests, is shows pretty well the differences in bonds and their strengths. By putting the chemicals through multiple tests, a conclusion can be made to classify the bonds that make up these molecular structures. The second part involved classifying the chemicals by group and then based upon their properties their bonds. The properties of ionic and covalent bonds vary some between the molecular structure, but fit the general properties of the bond style.

Analysis and Discussion
The experiment produced pretty definitive results in the tests of the six chemicals tested. The chemicals used were: Calcium Chloride, Citric Acid, Phenyl Salicylate, Potassium Iodide, Sodium Chloride and Sucrose. These chemicals each have their own individual properties and were put through their paces in four tests: Melting Point, Solubility in Ethanol, Solubility in Water and Connectivity of the different chemicals. The melting point results showed that Phenyl Salicylate, Citric Acid and Sucrose all have low melting points. Unlike Calcium Chloride, Potassium Iodide and Sodium Chloride which when heated over a Bunsen burner for two...
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