Jackson Corporation’s bonds have 12 years remaining to maturity. Interest is paid annually, the bonds have a $1,000 par value, and the coupon interest rate is 8%. The bonds have a yield to maturity of 9%. What is the current market price of these bonds? F= par value

C= maturity value
R= coupon rate per coupon payment period
I= effective interest rate per coupon payment period
N= number of coupon paynments
F= 1000 so C should = 1000 r= .08 i= .09 n= 12
The bond price is 928.39
5-2Yield to Maturity for Annual payments

Wilson Wonders’s bonds have 12 years remaining to maturity. Interest is paid annually, the bonds have a $1,000 par value, and the coupon interest rate is 10%. The bonds sell at a price of $850. What is their yield to maturity? Time to maturity= 12 years Par value= $1,000 Coupon rate =10% Price of bond =$850 yield to maturity 12.475 5-6Maturity Risk Premium

The real risk-free rate is 3%, and inflation is expected to be 3% for the next 2 years. A 2-year Treasury security yields 6.3%. What is the maturity risk premium for the 2-year security? K=k*+IP+DRP+LP+MRP

Renfro Rentals has issued bonds that have a 10% coupon rate, payable semiannually. The bonds mature in 8 years, have a face value of $1,000, and a yield to maturity of 8.5%. What is the price of the bonds? FV=1000

PMT= 50
N=16
R=4.25%
Pv= $1085.8
5-13Yield to Maturity and Current Yield

You just purchased a bond that matures in 5 years. The bond has a face value of $1,000 and has an 8% annual coupon. The bond has a current yield of 8.21%. What is the bond’s yield to maturity? Current yield= annual coupon/current price

8.21%=80/current price
Current price = 974.42
N= 5
I= -974.42
Fv=1000
8.65%
(6-6)If a company’s beta were to double, would its expected return double? No required return= risk free rate + beta (expected...

...perpetual bond is currently selling for RS. 95/-. The coupon rate of interest is 13.5%. The approximate discount rate is 15%. The value of the bond and the YTM is:
(a) Rs. 90/- and 14.2% Value is (13.5*15%=90) and YTM is ((13.5/95)*100=14.21%)
(b) Rs. 100/- and 13.5%
(c) Rs. 90 and 15%
(d) Rs. 90/- and 13.5%
902. In 2001, Meridian Ltd. has issued bonds of Rs. 10,000/-each due in 2011 with a 14% per annum coupon rate payable at the end of each year during the life of the bond. If the required rate of interest is 8%, find the present value of the bond. Tick the nearest option.
(a) 10,000
(b) 7302
(c) 2,700
(d) 14,026 (9394.11+4631.93=14026.05)
903. The present market value of an equity share is Rs. 80/-; and the exercisable price of the warrant is Rs. 60/- per share. An investor is holding a warrant entitling him to purchase 50 equity shares. The minimum value of the warrant is:
(a) 1,000/- (80-60=20*50=1000)
(b) 4,000/-
(c) 3,000/-
(d) None of these
904. A bond with a coupon rate of 8% is available at its face value of Rs. 1,000/-. The market rate of return on an instrument with similar risk goes down to 6%. The bond price will become:
(a) 1,000/-
(b) 750/-
(c) 1,333/- (800/6%)
(d) None of these
905. A bond with a coupon rate of 10% is available at Rs. 1,250/-. The face value of the bond is Rs. 1,000/-. The...

...Bonds and Their Valuation
After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
• List the four main classifications of bonds and differentiate among them.
• Identify the key characteristics common to all bonds.
• Calculate the value of a bond with annual or semiannual interest payments.
• Explain why the market value of an outstanding fixed-rate bond will fall when interest rates rise on new bonds of equal risk, or vice versa.
• Calculate the current yield, the yield to maturity, and/or the yield to call on a bond.
• Differentiate between interest rate risk, reinvestment rate risk, and default risk.
• List major types of corporate bonds and distinguish among them.
• Explain the importance of bond ratings and list some of the criteria used to rate bonds.
• Differentiate among the following terms: Insolvent, liquidation, and reorganization.
• Read and understand the information provided on the bond market page of your newspaper
Characteristics of Bonds
A bond is a long-term contract under which a borrower (the issuer) agrees to make payments of interest and principal, on specific dates, to the holders (creditors) of the bond.
Bearer bond - Bonds...

...and Answers
Using present value to value bonds
A bond, from the perspective of the person issuing the bond is a form of long term debt.
In the hands of the person who has acquired the bond it is an asset.
The agency issuing the bond agrees to pay a fixed sum of money to the holder of the bond for a period of years and then, at the end of that period, to pay back the face value of thebond.
Bonds can be issued by a variety of agencies/companies:
1. Municipal bonds: issued by cities, states and other local agencies
2. Government bonds: issued by the department of finance/treasury department of a government
3. Corporate bonds: issued by companies
Our main interest in relation to bonds is in corporate bonds. Why do companies issue bonds?
• Raise finance
• Often cheaper than bank borrowings
Terminology relevant to bond valuation
• Nominal/Face value/Principal – This is the amount on which interest payments are based. It is normally a round sum such as €1,000.
• Redemption value – This is the amount that will be paid out by the issuer of the bond when he comes to repay/redeem it.
• Coupon – The amount of interest paid on the bond is referred to as the coupon and the rate (%) is the coupon...

...Introduction of bonds……………………………………………..01
Characteristics of Bonds…………………………………………01
Types of Bonds…………………………………………………… 06
Bonds Market……………………………………………………… 08
Introduction of Pakistan bond market……………...................08
How Bonds Trade……………………………………………….….09
Bond Price Variations……………………………………………..09
Bond valuation…………………………………………..................09
Types ofbonds trade in Pakistan……………………………….10
Government Debt Securities……………………………………..10
Characteristics of MTBs and PIBs………………………………12
Pakistan Investment Bonds……………………………………... 12
Auction Mechanism………………………………………………...13
Corporate Bond Market…………………………………………....13
Conclusion…………………………………………………………...14 Reference………………………………… ……………….………...14
Summary of Articles………………………………………………..15
Introduction of bonds
Definition:
A bond is basically a loan. The owner of a bond has given the issuer-whether it is a corporation, a government or another agency-a sum of money that can be used at any point. In exchange, the issuer will pay interest to the bondholder over a period of time and will eventually return the initial amount loaned, called the principal. Unlike a stock, the bondholder does not own a part of the company. Because a bond is basically a loan, they are often called "debt securities"...

...BOND PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
1. Six years ago, The Corzine Company sold a 20-year bond issue with a 14 percent annual coupon rate and a 9 percent call premium. Today, Corzine called the bonds. The bonds originally were sold at their face value of $1,000. Compute the realized rate of return for investors who purchased the bonds when they were issued and who surrender them today in exchange for the call price.
PV = 1000; N = 6; PMT = 140; FV = 1090; CPT I/Y
I/Y = 15.02%
2. You just purchased a bond which matures in 5 years. The bond has a face value of $1,000, and has an 8 percent annual coupon. The bond has a current yield of 8.21 percent. What is the bond’s yield to maturity?
CURRENT YIELD = ANNUAL COUPON ( PV
0.0821 = 80 ( PV
PV = 80 ( 0.0821 = 974.42
N = 5; PMT = 80; FV=1000; PV = 974.42 CPT I/Y
I/Y = 8.65%
3. The Dass Company’s bonds have 4 years remaining to maturity. Interest is paid annually; the bonds have a $1,000 par value; and the coupon interest rate is 9 percent. What is the yield to maturity at a current market price of $829? Would you pay $829 for one of these bonds if you thought that the appropriate rate of return was 12 percent?
PV = 829; N = 4; FV = 1000; PMT =90; CPT I/Y
I/Y = 14.99%
YES, IF YOU THOUGHT...

...MINI PROJECT
ON
BOND
REPORT SUBMITTED BY
DARKWAH JOSEPH ASANTE
REG NO-3510910956
Of
M.B.A 2ND YEAR
Under the guidance of
MR.RAMESH SHANKAR
Asst. Professor, Dept. of M.B.A
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT
S.R.M. School of Management,
Kattankulathur
WHAT IS BOND
In finance, a bond is a debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and, depending on the terms of thebond, is obliged to pay interest (the coupon) and/or to repay the principal at a later date, termed maturity. A bond is a formal contract to repay borrowed money with interest at fixed intervals.[1]Thus a bond is like a loan: the issuer is the borrower (debtor), the holder is the lender (creditor), and the coupon is the interest. Bonds provide the borrower with external funds to finance long-term investments, or, in the case of government bonds, to finance current expenditure. Certificates of deposit (CDs) or commercial paper are considered to be money market instruments and not bonds. Bonds must be repaid at fixed intervals over a period of time.
Issuing bondsBonds are issued by public authorities, credit institutions, companies and supranational institutions in the primary markets. The most common process of issuing bonds is through...

...ASSIGNMENT
UDBS
Consider a 10 year bond that has a face value shs 1000, a coupon rate of 6% and pays interest once a year.
(a)Suppose person A bought this bond at par when it was initially issued and sold it 1 year later to person B for shs 1024.What is B’s total return?
Soln
Total return =[ Interest paid +(selling price – buying price)]/buying price
Given; Annual interest paid = coupon rate x par value, coupon rate = 6%, par value =1000.
= 6% x1000
=60 , buying price = 1000, selling price = 1030
,
= [60 + (1030 – 1000 )]/1000
=0.09 or 9%
(b)Suppose B holds the bond for 1 year and sells it to person C for shs 1024.What is B’s total return?
Soln
Given; annual interest paid = 60, buying price = 1030, selling price = 1024
=[60 + (1024 – 1030)]/1030
=0.052 or 5.2%
(c)Assume C holds the bond for 3years.Suppose that at the end of these 3 years market interest rate for bonds similar to this one is 7%
i)What price should C expect to fetch in the market?
VB =INT(1 -1/(1 + rd)n /rd ) + m/(1 +rd )n
Given; INT = 60, rd =7%, n = 5, M = 1000.
= 60(4.1) + 713
=246 + 713...

...importance in bond and stock valuation;
The capital structure of the company; and
How they effects to the capital budgeting decisions of the company.
- Swan- Davis Inc., (SDI) manufactures equipment for sale to large contractors, the company was found in 1976 and it went to the public in 1980 at its shares value risen from $1 to $15 since it enter to the market.
- The financial statements for the past three years show a decline trend in both the operation and return on shareholder of the company, so a closer look at the factors contributing to this decline is needed.
- The capital structure of company mainly constitutes of:
1. Deb
a. Bond A which is activities trade and highly liquid, issued 10 years ago, and it has 10 years to maturity.
b. Bond B which is thinly traded and no valid market quotation is available; it has 23 years to maturity more.
2. Preferred stock
3. Equity Stock and retained earning.
Question 1:
If an investor bought some of SDI's A bonds at the current market price, what would be his/her yield to maturity?
Look at the case concerns, bond A has a $1000 par value and coupon rate is 10%, pail semiannually. The bond was issued 10 years ago, and has 10 years to maturity; current market price is $1092.
Input data Calculation result is compounded semiannually
Par value (FV) = $1,000
Coupon rate =...