Cigarette smoking has established effects on body weight. The effect of weight concerns on smoking initiation, as well as smoking cessation will be examined in the following review. The following review further examines how age, time spent smoking and concern with an individual’s outward appearance, can also lead to a continuation of smoking. The following review also demonstrates that when one ceases to smoke cigarettes, there is a high likely hood that their BMI will raise as well as a demonstration that cigarettes increase the basal metabolic rate. Habitual smokers have been found to weigh 3-6 kg less than non-smokers. In the text the explanation of this relationship is examined. Findings include, the need to do something with one’s hands, food preferences, choosing sweets over other foods. Findings further explained that during the cessation stage an ex-smoker will gain 4.5 kg and that roughly 13% will gain at least 11 kg. Efforts to address weight concerns in smoking cessation programs may need to target these subjects as it leads to these individuals not ceases to stop smoking cigarettes.
Cigarette smoking is a well-documented public health problem. Furthermore, cigarette smoking has established effects on body weight. What is the cause and effect as to why smokers may have a lower BMI than non-smokers, and how do cigarettes affect weight gain during and after cessation? Also, does the possibility of weight gain after cessation, stop the smoking from quitting for fear of gaining weight? Tobacco deaths alone account for 4.9 million deaths annually. Aside from the addictive properties, one explanation could be the belief that cigarettes contribute to a lower BMI. Also what happens to your BMI once you cease smoking cigarettes? The following review will examine scientific data on weight concerns and smoking behaviors.
The dimensions of appearance concerns in smokers
An individual’s outward appearance appears to play a large role in the onset and continuation of smoking. One way to tackle the problem of weight gain in smokers vs. nonsmokers is to simply ask them what their fears are, with regards to gaining weight and their appearance in general. Grogan, Hartley, Conner, Fry and Gough (2010) conducted an experimental research, involving a questionnaire of a total of 244 British, 17-34 yr. olds. The questionnaire given to the subjects was the Multidimensional Body- Self Relations Appearance Sub- Scales. The subjects were then asked to rate their feelings towards their appearance. The method involved mailing the questionnaire to 547 non-student participants in Leeds who had taken part of a previous smoking study; as well as an additional 80 university students that attended Staffordshire. The questionnaires were returned, some counting as undeliverable, which resulted in a final number of 244 complete data sets, Grogan et. al. (2010). The participants include Staffordshire University 7 male smokers, 36 male non-smokers, 5 female smokers and 32 female non-smokers. The sample from Leeds included 8 male smokers, 49 male non-smokers, 43 female smokers and 103 female non-smokers, Grogan et. al. (2010) . The questionnaire included closed and two open- ended questions, one such question was, why do you smoke? The scale also measured things such as Appearance Scale and Appearance Evaluation, also along with self-classified weight. The results that the researchers used , were compared by two factors MANOVA followed by Univariate ANOVA. Results revealed the following data (F-4.237=7.90;p<0.001 eta squared=0.10) In the end the only variable that differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers was appearance evaluation; smokers were not as positive about their appearance than non-smokers, Grogan, (2010). It should also be noted that this was based on asking subjects about their feelings toward their general...