The Bloom's Wheel, according to the Bloom's verbs and matching assessment types. The verbs are intended to be feasible and measurable. Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives within education proposed in 1956 by a committee of educators chaired by Benjamin Bloom who also edited the first volume of the standard text, Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals (referred to as simply "the Handbook" below). Although named after Bloom, the publication followed a series of conferences from 1949 to 1953, which were designed to improve communication between educators on the design of curricula and examinations. It refers to a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains": Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor (sometimes loosely described asknowing/head, feeling/heart and doing/hands respectively). Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels. A goal of Bloom's Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education. A revised version of the taxonomy was created in 2000. Bloom's Taxonomy is considered to be a foundational and essential element within the education community as evidenced in the 1981 survey Significant writings that have influenced the curriculum: 1906-1981, by H.G. Shane and the 1994 yearbook of theNational Society for the Study of Education. A mythology has grown around the taxonomy, possibly due to many people learning about the taxonomy through second hand information. Bloom himself considered the Handbook, "One of the most widely cited yet least read books in American education." Key to understanding the taxonomy and its revisions, variations, and addenda over the years is an understanding that the original Handbook in 1956 was intended only to have focus on one of the three domains (as indicated in the domain specification in title: The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook I: Cognitive Domain), but there was expectation that additional material would be generated for the other domains (as indicated in the numbering of the handbook in the title). The second volume, Handbook II: Affective Domain edited by David Krathwohl was published in 1964. There was no Handbook of and III for the Psychomotor domain published by the committee as the consensus was that (as college level academics) they lacked the necessary experience to do the job properly. Substitute domain taxonomies have been published by various authors to fill the gap.. Bloom also considered the initial effort to be a starting point, as evidenced in a memorandum from 1971 in which he said, "Ideally each major field should have its own taxonomy in its own language - more detailed, closer to the special language and thinking of its experts, reflecting its own appropriate sub-divisions and levels of education, with possible new categories, combinations of categories and omitting categories as appropriate." Cognitive
Categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) Skills in the cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking of a particular topic. Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives. There are six levels in the taxonomy, moving through the lowest order processes to the highest: Knowledge
Exhibit memory of previously learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers * Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts
* Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics - conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology * Knowledge of the universals and...
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