Chapter 12 Theories and Schools of Modern linguistics
Introduction The Prague School • Introduction • Phonology& Phonological Oppositions • Functional Sentence Perspective(FSP) The London School • Malinowski’s theories • Firth’s theories • Halliday & Systemic-Functional Grammar American Structuralism • Early Period: Boas & Sapir Bloomfield’s Theory • Post- Bloomfieldian Linguistics

Transformational- Generative Grammar • The innateness hypothesis • What Is a generative grammar • The Classical Theory • The Standard theory • The Extended Standard Theory • Main features of TG Grammar • Later theories

Revisionsists? Rebels? • Case Grammar • Generative Semantics

1 Modern linguistics began from the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), who is often described as “father of modern linguistics”. His lectures are collected in the book “Course in General Linguistics”. 2 Saussure believed that language is a System of Signs. This sign is the union of a form and an idea, which he called the signifier and the signified. 3 Saussure’s ideas on the arbitrary nature of sign, on the relational nature of linguistic units, on the distinction of Langue and Parole and of Synchronic and Diachronic linguistics pushed linguistics into a brand new stage.

12.1 The Prague School
12.1.1 Introduction 1) The Prague School can be traced back to its first meeting under the leadership of V.Mathesius in 1926. This school practiced a special style of synchronic linguistics, and its most important contribution to linguistics is that it sees language in terms of function. 2) Three most important ideas developed in Prague School 12.1.2 Phonology & Phonological Oppositions 1) The Prague School is best known for its contribution to phonology and the distinction of phonetics and phonology. 2) Its representative is Trubetzkoy. 3) Oppositions ( a---I ) bilateral opposition; multilateral opposition; proportional opposition; isolated opposition; privative opposition;...
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